Archives de catégorie : Ahabanza

Umwami n‘Umuntu ni uyu nguyu

photo wikipedia

photo wikipedia

Mvuge Gisanura utuma basamura
Tumuhe ibnze tureke abanze
Aruta Ruganzu ubaka intorezo maze akasa
Arusha Rwabugiri w’inkotanyi ugira cyane
Uyu ni we witwa Imana y’i Rwanda.

Mbonye umwami uzi iby’ubwami ubirusha abandi
Uwo ni Mibambwe Sekarongoro ni Gisanura
Umuzirakuvusha usa n’Imana ni yo yamwimitse
Akaba umwami nyirurugero Imana yagennye ari Urugero
Ni muntu ni undi aho mu kirere akaba na Ndeshyo
N’ubwo abatwara ahora abareba akanabarebera
Ntagendera isumbwe no mu isunzu hahora ibambe;

Impuhwe n’imbabazi ntibimutashya biramutaha
Iburyo hari indyo ikiza abashage iramira abashonji
Mu rubega rundi ni inkongoro ngo azira nkota
Uyu Nyirubuntu ni umunyabuntu n‘umunyabintu
Aruta abandi abarusha ubwami ubwo ni umwami
Umugiramana yaramuhaye arabyakira ayiha wese
Ateye intambwe araratura areba abandi arabanikira;
Ikirenge agisumbya se mu Bumuntu ho ntibareshya
Se umubyara Kigeri Nyamuheshera ubu arasumbwa
Umutwe we utekeyemo ubumuntu we ni umuntu
Umutimamuntu ni wo mutoza yarawutoye ntumutonda
Umugaba nk’uyu agira igisingizo kimukwiye akakikwiza
Yagabiye benshi, incuro nyinshi biramubera
Izina rivanze n’ikuzo rikamukuza ni Rugabishabirenge ;

Igihe kiraje ngo natange mvuge Mibambwe Gisanura
Koko aratanze nuko umwami wimye afite ibyo atanga
Ntabwo yimanye wa murage waroze abandi kwica
Dore wanze gukendera none urusaziyemo urukemba
Ntuvumwa uvumbitse mu bikwohwa by’abikanyiza
Warakanyaraye uba igikagange uzira gukanjakanjwa
Aho se mama uzima iyi ngoma iri imbere azawima?

Umwami utanze ahaye umwami wimye iyo ngoma
Mibambwe Sekarongoro Gisanura ararembereye
Ahaye umuhungu ari we Yuhi Mazimpaka uzazisiga
Ntahaguruka ngo ajye kurwana anyage iby’abandi
Ari ku nteko ni aho atetse n’aho yatirimuka ntarara
Si wa mutsembyi utsembatsemba icumu lihoga
Ni umunyabyago Mutimamuntu wabuze byose.

Nabe Igicumbi mu Banyarwanda
Aho gucumbika kwa Nyamuzinda
Ngo ahore azinduka ajya mu bantu
Najye mu mvugo avugwe iteka
Aragwe urubyiruko uwo Gusanura.
(Cfr. Bernardin Muzungu,
Histoire du Rwanda Pré-colonial, L`Harmattan 2003)

Evariste Nsabimana

Umukiza

Photo de cottonbro provenant de Pexels

Photo de cottonbro provenant de Pexels

 

Umukiza uvutse aje kuruvura

Umuvumo rwavumwe rukivuka

Arawukura ukuke ukuke amenyo

Maze mu bihanga ahangemo ihwa

Ngo lihandure amahano yose ahamera

Ahite ahumana arware ubuhumyi

Ubudahunyeza ukundi i Rwanda ;

 

Tuzarutaha umwaka utaha dutaraka

Dutambuka turi abantu bo kwa Muntu

Impande zose tuvuza impundu izi z’Impakanizi

Ndetse n’impanda zikoroma impinga zose

Nibwo Ubumuntu buzatamba buvuna sambwe

Burimo ubuntu Abenegihugu bahumeka

Bakenyeye Ihumure biteye Amahindura

 

Twambaze Imana igaruke iwayo isange abayo

Ize kuhatura ireme Agahuza ko kuduhuza

Ihatekanye itikure icyago n’Ikibi cyose

Bizarengane no kurengana n’ilirenze

Ihamye Umulindi ko ari Imana n’uko Imane

Ikazamanira Abanyagihugu cyahumutse Ubuziraherezo

Ibaha Ubumana ibaha Ubumanzi ibagira abantu bo kwa Muntu

 

Evariste Nsabimana

Inkuru idasanzwe : Ubuhamya bw’ibanga rikomeye bushyira mu majwi perezida w’u Rwanda ku byaha by’intambara

Judi rever monté - Copie Mu ibanga rikomeye, abacukumbuzi b’umuryango w’abibumbye bamaze imyaka myinshi begeranya ibimenyetso byerekana uruhare rwa perezida Kagame Pawulo n’ibyegera bye by’abanyarwanda mu bwicanyi bwibasiye imbaga y’abantu mbere ya jenoside yo mu w’1994, hagati muri jenoside, na nyuma yayo. Ibyo bimenyetso simusiga byatanzwe n’abasirikare b’abatutsi bitandukanyije n’ubutegetsi buriho, hanyuma biyemeza guhara amagara yabo bashyira hanze amabanga bari bazi. Ubwo buhamya bwabo, banaburahiriye imbere y’urukiko rw’umuryango w’abibumbye, bwavuguruzaga inkuru kimomo y’ukuntu igihugu cyituye mu icuraburindi ry’urugomo n’ubwicanyi, inkuru yagaragazaga Kagame na Efuperi ye nk’abacunguzi b’igihugu. N’ubwo habayeho ubwo buhamya, urukiko rw’ibyaha by’intambara rw’umuryango w’abibumbye -ku busabe bwa leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika- ntirwigeze na rimwe rukurikirana Kagame n’abayobozi be b’ingabo. Ariko ubu noneho, bwa mbere mu mateka, igice kitari gito cy’ibimenyetso bifitwe n’umuryango w’abibumbye, nyuma yo kunonosorwa, gishyizwe ku ka rubanda.

Ubuhamya bunonosoye mwabusanga hano.

Judi Rever na Benedigito Moran

Mu ntangiriro za Nyakanga 1994, ubwo jenoside yariho irangira mu Rwanda, Kiristofu, utahishurwa mu mazina ye cyangwa aho atuye ku pamvu z’umutekano we, yinjijwe muri Efuperi-Inkotanyi yari iyobowe n’abatutsi. Kirisitofu, wigaga ubuvuzi mbere y’intambara, yoherejwe kwita ku nkomere za gisirikare za Efuperi ahitwa i Masaka, mu majyepfo y’uburasirazuba bw’umurwa mukuru wa Kigali.

Efuperi yari hafi gutsinda intambara bidasubirwaho. Yari indunduro y’imeneka ry’amaraso ryatangiye mu w’1990 ubwo ingabo za Efuperi zateraga u Rwanda zivuye mu birindiro byazo i Buganda, aho imiryango y’abatutsi yari yaraheze mu buhunzi mu gihe cy’imyaka mirongwitatu.

Intambara yabo yo gushaka ubutegetsi mu Rwanda yinjiye mu ikorosi rikaze ku ya 6 Mata 1994, igihe indege yari itwaye Habyarimana Yuvenali, perezida w’u Rwanda w’umuhutu, yahanurirwaga i Kigali, abari bayirimo bose bagapfa, maze amasezerano y’isaranganya ry’ubutegetsi akaburizwamo inkubirane, kandi yari agamije kurangiza intambara n’urugomo byari bimaze imyaka itatu n’igice. Iraswa ry’indege ryakongeje ubuhotozi ndengakamere bwisasiye ibihumbi amagana by’abatutsi, abenshi bakaba barahitanywe n’abahutu bari basangiye igihugu. Byageze hagati muri Nyakanga Efuperi imaze kurandura leta y’abahutu, ndetse inavugwaho guhagarika ubwicanyi.

Nyamara Kirisitofu, aho yari ari ku ivuriro ry’urugamba i Masaka, yabonye ko ubwicanyi bwari bugikomeje. Aherutse kubwira ikinyamakuru M&G, ati: “Abantu bararigiswaga”. Hari benshi mu bakurutu (abarikiri) Kirisitofu yavuraga batangiye kujya bamubwira idonido inkuru ziteye ubwoba z’ibyo basabwaga gukorera abaturage b’abahutu barimo abagabo, abagore n’abana, byabonekaga ko ntaho bahuriye n’iyicwa ry’abatutsi. Bavugaga ko abo bahutu bashimutwaga n’abambari ba Efuperi babakuye mu bice binyuranye by’umurwa mukuru, bakabajyanwa mu kigo cy’impfubyi cya mutagatifu Agata cyari hafi aho, akaba ariho bahotorerwa.

Abo bana b’abakurutu babwiraga Kirisitofu ko basabwaga n’abakuru babo bo muri Efuperi kuboha abasivili no kubicisha inyundo n’amafuni, mbere yo guhita babatwikira ahongaho no gutaba ivu ryabo. Bamubwiraga ako kazi bakoreshwaga buri munsi kakuraga umutima kakanahahamura. Abenshi mu basirikare bingingiraga Kirisitofu kubasinyira urupapuro rw’ikiruhuko cy’uburwayi kugira ngo barebe ko baba baruhutseho kwirirwa bahotora abantu. Yaragize ati: “Ntibifuzaga kugira uwo bica”. Umwe muri abo barikiri yabwiye Kirisitofu ko mu aho mu kigo cy’imfubyi hiciwe abantu barenga ibihumbi bitandatu mu minsi itanu yonyine.

Mu mpera za Nyakanga, Efuperi yohereje Kirisitofu n’ibihumbi by’abandi bakurutu mu kigo cy’imyitozo cya Gabiro. Icyo kigo giherereye mu burasirazuba bw’u Rwanda, mu nkengero z’ishyamba rigari rigize pariki y’igihugu y’Akagera. Ingabo z’inyeshyamba zari zarahashyize ibirindiro intambara itararangira, ku buryo nta mukozi w’imiryango mpuzamahanga itegamiye kuri leta, uwa loni cyangwa se umunyamakuru, washoboraga kuhakandagiza ikirenge.

Efuperi yari yaratangiye kwinjiza mu gisirikare abagabo b’abahutu, ikabizeza umutekano mu gihe baba biyemeje kwiyegurira Efuperi. Ni benshi muri bo bitabiriye ubutumire. Gusa ibyababayeho i Gabiro byeretse Kirisitofu ko abo basore b’abahutu bari barabeshywe. Aho guhabwa imyitozo, iyo bageragayo batangiraga kuvangurwa n’intasi za gisirikare, bakerekezwa mu kibuga bagahita baraswa. Yavuze ko n’abakurutu b’abatutsi bavuye muri Kongo, i Burundi n’i Buganda, barigiswaga iyo abamaneko ba gisirikare babakekagaho kutayoboka cyangwa se ubugambanyi.

Icyakuye Kirisitofu umutima kurushaho, ni amakamyo yuzuye abasivili b’abahutu yaboneraga ahirengeye yinjirira ku rundi ruhande rw’ikigo. Yavuze ko hashize amezi menshi nta munsi w’ubusa Efuperi itica abo bahutu, hanyuma igatwika imirambo yabo.

Kateripirari zakoraga amanywa n’ijoro zihamba ibisigazwa. Kirisitofu avugana n’ikinyamakuru M&G yaragize ati: “Wabonaga amakamyo, wabonaga umwotsi. Wumvaga umunuko w’imibiri igurumana”. “Ayo makamyo yose yariho atunda abantu baje kwicwa. Nabonye kateripilari, narayumvise n’amatwi yanjye. Byose babikoraga nk’inzobere.”

Ubwo bwicanyi bwakomeje ubudahagarara, biza kugeza aho Kirisitofu ubwe yatangiye kwikanga ko kubibona n’amaso ye byazatuma amaherezo nawe agenzwa nk’abandi. Hari abasirikare bamwe bahahamurwaga n’ibyo bahatirwaga gukora bakagerageza gutoroka Gabiro. Yavuze ko ibyago byabo ari uko bahitaga bafatwa bakicwa. Yiruhukije muri Mata 1995, ubwo yimurirwaga ahandi akavanwa i Gabiro, hanyuma hashira icyumweru kimwe gusa agahita atoroka u Rwanda ubutazarugarukamo.

Nyuma y’imyaka myinshi yarahunze, Kirisotofu yatangiye kwirekurira abacukumbuzi b’urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rw’umuryango w’abibumbye rwashyiriweho u Rwanda. Urwo rukiko rwashyizweho jenoside ikirangira ruhabwa inshingano zo gukurikirana ibyaha biruta ibindi byakozwe mu mwaka w’1994. Mu bigaragara, urwo rukiko rwahisemo kutagira undi rukurikirana uretse ibikomerezwa by’abahutu byakekwagaho gutegura no gushyira mu bikorwa jenoside yakorewe abatutsi. Ariko hirya y’ibigaragara, abagize itsinda ry’ibanga ry’urwo rukiko, ryitwaga Itsinda ry’iperereza ridasanzwe, begeranyije ibimenyetso ku byaha byakozwe na Efuperi. Byageze mu mwaka wa 2003, abacukumbuzi bo mu itsinda ry’iperereza ridasanzwe bamaze kubona abatangabuhamya babarirwa mu magana, muri bo ababarirwa muri mirongo bakaba baremeye kurahirira ubuhamya bwabo.

Nk’uko bigaragara mu cyegeranyo cya raporo yashyikirijwe umushinjacyaha mukuru w’urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rwa loni mu mwaka w’2003, itsinda ry’iperereza ridasanzwe ryari ryaregeranyije ibimenyetso simusiga bishinja Efuperi. Abatangabuhamya benshi bunze mu rya Kirisitofu bemeza ko Efuperi yakoze ubwicanyi bw’abasivili b’abahutu i Gabiro ndetse n’ahandi henshi mbere ya jenoside, hagati muri jenoside na nyuma yayo. Abatangabuhamya bahamirije itsinda ry’iperereza ridasanzwe ko Efuperi ariyo yahanuye indege ya Habyarimana ku italiki ya gatandatu Mata. Abahoze mu gisirikare banabwiye abacukumbuzi ko abakomando ba Efuperi biyoberanyaga bakagaba ibitero ku buryo ntawari kubakeka. Bamwe mu bakomando ngo biyambikaga imyenda ya gisivili bagacengera mu ntagondwa z’abahutu, zizwi ku izina ry’Interahamwe, mu mugambi wo kuzishishikariza kwica abatutsi benshi kurushaho, ikigambiriwe kikaba kwari ugushaka kwerekana uburyo leta y’abahutu ari ruvumwa birenze, no kongerera Efuperi icyizere n’ukwemerwa mu maso y’umuryango mpuzamahanga.

Muri iyo raporo, abacukumbuzi b’umuryango w’abibumbye bakoze urutonde rw’abantu ba Efuperi bashobora gukurikiranwa no gushyirirwaho impapuro zo gutabwa muri yombi, barimo na perezida Kagame Pawulo ubwe. Gusa icyagaragaye ni uko ubwo urukiko rw’umuryango w’abibumbye rwafungaga imiryango mu mwaka w’2015, abarenga mirongwitandatu baciriwe urubanza bakanafungwa kubera ibyaha bya jenoside n’ibindi byaha by’intambara, bose bari abo muri leta y’abahutu yavuyeho. Nta rwandiko na rumwe rw’ifatwa loni yigeze itangira Efuperi; ibimenyetso byose by’amabi ya Efuperi byahambwe kure cyane. Kirisitofu yahuye n’abacukumbuzi inshuro eshatu zose, akaba buri gihe yarahaga urukiko ubuhamya bwanditse akagerekaho n’indahiro, ariko ubu hashize hafi imyaka makumyabili yose ubwo buhamya bwe, kimwe n’ubw’abandi basirikare ba Efuperi babarirwa muri mirongo babonye ubuhotozi bwa Efuperi, bwarafungiwe ahantu hatagerwa ho mu bushyinguro bw’inyandiko z’urukiko.

Muri iyi nkuru idasanzwe, ikinyamakuru Mail & Guardian kirashyira hanze inyandiko mirongwitatu n’imwe (31) zishingiye ku buhamya ababihagazeho bahaye abacukumbuzi b’umuryango w’abibumbye. Izo nyandiko zahishuriwe ikinyamakuru M&G n’abantu banyuranye bafite ubunararibonye budashidikanywaho mu rukiko rw’umuryango w’abibumbye. Kuko inyandikomvugo z’abatangabuhamya zigaragaza amazina n’ibindi byatuma bamenyekana, zabanje kunonosorwa n’urukiko ndetse n’ikinyamakuru M&G, ku bw’umutekano w’abatangamakuru. Abatangamakuru bahaye urukiko ubuhamya ku bwicanyi bwa Efuperi, bahuye n’akaga ko kwikanga ubugizi bwa nabi, ndetse abacukumbuzi bemeza ko bamwe muri bo bashimuswe. Gusa, abaduhaye amakuru basa n’abemeza ko Efuperi igomba kuba ifite inyandikomvugo z’abatangabuhamya z’umwimerere uko zakabaye. Hari ubuhamya bumwe bwarekewe uko buri kubera ko nyirabwo yitabye Imana mu w’2010.

Kuva mu mwaka w’1994, abantu benshi barimo abaharanira uburenganzira bw’ikiremwamuntu, abanyamakuru n’inzobere mu by’amategeko mu rukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rw’umuryango w’abibumbye rwashyiriweho u Rwanda, bagiye batsimbarara ku kuvuga ko ubwicanyi bwakozwe na Efuperi budashobora kugereranywa n’ubuhotozi intagondwa z’abahutu zakoreye abatutsi, haba mu buryo bwakozwe, icyari kigambiriwe, cyangwa se uko bwateguwe. Leta y’u Rwanda yemeje ko ubwicanyi bwose bwaba bwarakozwe n’abantu bo muri Efuperi bwari ibikorwa byo kwihorera nta kindi, kandi ko ababukoze babihaniwe n’inzego z’igihugu zibishinzwe. Ikigaragara ni uko ibyo bivuguruzwa n’ubu buhamya bubonekamo amakuru asesuye kandi ateye urumeza ku buhotozi bwakozwe na Efuperi — akenshi bwagiye butangwa n’abasirikare bagize uruhare mu bwicanyi buvugwa -. N’ubwo izi nkuru atari gihamya y’icyaha, ariko zishobora kuba ibimenyetso byihuse byakwifashishwa mu kugira ngo habeho ugushinja. Muri rusange, ibimenyetso byegeranyijwe n’itsinda ry’iperereza ridasanzwe bigaragaza ko ubwicanyi bwakozwe na Efuperi butari ibikorwa byo guhorera abatutsi, ahubwo bwari ubwicanyi bwateguwe neza kandi wari umugambi ufite icyo ugamije. Umunsi byemejwe n’urukiko, bizagaragarira buri wese ko Efuperi yagize uruhare rutaziguye mu gukoma imbarutso ya jenoside ubwo yaturitsaga indege ya perezida Habyarimana, hakiyongeraho ko abakuru bayo bashyize mu bikorwa itsembambaga ry’abaturage b’abasivili barobanurwaga, haba mbere ya jenoside, hagati muri jenoside cyangwa se nyuma ya jenoside.

Abenshi mu bayobozi b’ingabo za Efuperi bagize uruhare mu bwicanyi bwagaragajwe n’itsinda ry’iperereza ridasanzwe, bagiye bahabwa imyanya ikomeye muri guverinoma no mu gisirikari cy’u Rwanda, ndetse bamwe baracyanayirimo. Kagame Pawulo, ariwe wari umugaba mukuru wa Efuperi mu gihe cya jenoside y’1994, yabaye perezida w’u Rwanda guhera mu mwaka w’2000 kugeza n’ubu, kandi aracyari inshuti ya hafi ya leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika. Nyamvumba Patirike, wahoze ayobora ikigo cy’amahugurwa cya Gabiro, yabaye umugaba mukuru w’ingabo z’u Rwanda kuva mu mwaka w’2013 kugeza mu w’2019, mu gihe mbere yaho, hagati y’umwaka wa 2009 na 2013, yabaye umugaba w’ingabo zirinda amahoro ku isi muri Sudani, zihuriweho na loni n’umuryango w’ubumwe bw’Afurika. Yanabaye minisitiri w’umutekano kugeza muri Mata 2020. Kabarebe Jemusi, wavuzweho n’abatangabuhamya kugira uruhare rukomeye cyane mu bwicanyi bwabereye mu majyaruguru y’u Rwanda no mu gutegura ihotorwa rya Habyarimana, yabaye minisitiri w’ingabo kuva mu mwaka wa 2010 kugeza muri 2018, kandi n’ubu aracyari umujyanama mukuru wa Kagame Pawulo. Jenerali Kayumba Nyamwasa, ariwe wayoboraga ubutasi bwa gisirikare bwa Efuperi buzwi ku izina rya demayi mu gihe cya jenoside, avugwaho kuba ariwe watekereje kandi agatunganya umugambi wa Efuperi wo gucengera mu nsoresore z’abicanyi b’abahutu, ndetse n’umugambi mugari w’itsembabahutu ryakorewe abaturage b’abahutu mu gihugu hose. Kayumba Nyamwasa yahunze igihugu muri 2010, akaba ari umwe mu bantu bakomeye barwanya leta bari mu mahanga.

Ibiro by’ishyaka Efuperi, ibiro bya perezida wa Repuburika y’u Rwanda, inama nkuru y’ itangazamakuru, ndetse na Kayumba Nyamwasa, ubu uri mu buhungiro, ntibigeze basubiza ubwo basabwaga kugira icyo bavuga kuri izi nyandiko. Ku rubuga rwe rwa “twita”, umujyanama wa perezida Kagame witwa Makolo Yolanda, yateye utwatsi ubusabe bw’ikinyamakuru Mail & Guardian ku bijyanye n’izi nyandiko, avuga ko ubwo busabe atari ubwo busabe “nta gaciro bukwiye guhabwa”.

Reyinjensi Filipo, umubirigi w’umusesenguzi mu bya politiki, akaba yaramaze imyaka mirongo yiga u Rwanda, kandi nk’impuguke akaba yarahaye ubuhamya urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rw’umuryango w’abibumbye rwashyiriweho u Rwanda, yavuze ko ukwemerwa kwa Efuperi gushingiye ku gukiza abatutsi no guhagarika jenoside, bityo gucukumbura byimbitse ibyo Efuperi ubwayo yaba yarakoze bikaba byatesha agaciro inkuru z’ibyabaye uko zivugwa na leta.

Reyinjensi yabwiye ikinyamakuru M&G ko “Ukwemerwa kwa Efuperi ahanini gushingiye ku kuba abantu bayifata nk’aho ihagarariye ikanarengera abarokotse jenoside yakorewe abatutsi mu mwaka w’1994. Ni ‘abantu beza’. Ikimenyetso cyose cyerekana ko Efuperi yatsembye imbaga cyangwa se yagize uruhare mu guhanura indege ya perezida, igikorwa cyakongeje jenoside, gituma habaho ugushidikanya kuri ubwo buryo Efuperi yemerwa, iyo ikaba ariyo mpamvu abo muri Efuperi bakirwanya bivuye inyuma n’imbaraga zabo zose.”

Kirisitofu, wabwiye M&G amagambo n’ubuhamya bisa n’iby’abandi batangabuhamya batanze ubuhamya nk’ubwe, yavuze ko yemera ko ubwicanyi yiboneye i Gabiro budashobora kuba ibikorwa byo kwihorera ku buhotozi abahutu ku giti cyabo bakoze muri jenoside. Ubuhotozi bwa Efuperi bwarakomeje, ndetse yavuze ko “bwakozwe igihe kirekire bikabije, bwari buteguwe neza kandi bwakozwe kuri gahunda,” ku buryo butakwitwa ibikorwa byo kwihimura.

UBWICANYI BW’i GABIRO

Abandi bantu babihagazeho bunze mu rya Kirisitofu, batanga ubuhamya bw’uko Efuperi yatangiye kwica i Gabiro mu kwa kane nyuma gato y’iyicwa rya Habyarimana. Umwe mu batangabuhamya wavuganye n’abacukumbuzi mu gifaransa, akaba yarahoze mu gisirikare cy’inkotanyi yari yarinjiyemo mu mwaka w’1992, yabwiye abo bacukumbuzi ko abaturage b’abahutu bari baravanywe mu byabo ku mihana myinshi yo mu majyaruguru y’u Rwanda, bazanywe i Gabiro mu makamyo ya rukururana, baruhukirizwa mu nyubako bitaga inzu ya Habyarimana yari ku birometero nka bitatu uvuye ku kigo cya gisirikare.

“Umukuru wa ba maneko yatoranyije abamaneko n’abarimu ba gisirikare bo guhotora abo bantu bari bazanywe na za rukururana… Abo basirikare bazirikaga akandoyi abagomba kwicwa, bakabajyana umwe umwe mu ‘irimbi’ haruguru y’inzu ya Habyarimana akaba ariho babarasira…

Ubwo buhotozi bwakorwaga ku manywa na nijoro mu gihe cy’ibyumweru bine kugera kuri bitanu byose nahamaze… Ahagana mu mpera z’ukwa kane cyangwa mu ntangiriro z’ukwa gatanu, nyuma y’ibyumweru bibiri by’ubuhotozi budahagarara, umunuko w’abapfu wari watangiye kumvikana mu kigo i Gabiro. Ibimashini bibiri binini nibyo byakoreshwaga mu guhamba intumbi”

Uyu mutangabuhamya yavuze ko yafatanyije n’abandi mu gutwika intumbi hakoreshejwe lisansi ivanze na mazutu maze intumbi zigahinduka ivu, mu ishyamba riri hafi y’ikindi kigo cya gisirikare cy’ahitwa i Gako. Uyu musirikare yahishuye ko umuliyetona witwaga Gasana Silasi, wari ushinzwe umutekano w’umuntu bitaga “Afandi-PC”, ariwe wabaga ahagarikiye ubwicanyi bw’i Gabiro. “Afandi-PC” ni izina ry’ibanga rya gisirikare rya Kagame Pawulo, nk’uko byatangajwe n’abahoze muri Efuperi babajijwe ukwabo kuri iki kibazo. Uwo mutangabugamya yabwiye abacukumbuzi ko uwo Gasana yabaga avugana kenshi na koloneli Nyamvumba Patirike, uyu muri icyo gihe akaba yari umuyobozi w’ibikorwa bya gisirikare n’umukuru w’abarimu ba gisirikare i Gabiro.

Undi muntu wahoze mu gisirikare cy’inkotanyi woherejwe i Gabiro hagati mu kwezi kwa Mata 1994, yabwiye urukiko amagambo akurikira:

“Amakamyo menshi yazaga avuye mu bice byinshi bikikije ikigo. Iyo abakurutu bajyaga gutashya babonaga izo kamyo zihita. Jye nazibonye inshuro ebyiri noherejwe gushaka inkwi, nzibona ndi nko mu kirometero kimwe uvuye ku kigo. Zabaga zifite rukururana imwe cyangwa nyinshi. Zari imodoka zifite amapine 18 cyangwa 24, zitagira pulake. Icyo gihe zanyuze iruhande rwanjye neza. Zari zuzuye abagabo, abagore, abana ndetse n’abo mu za bukuru. Bajyanywe ahantu hafi y’urwunge rw’amazu rw’uwahoze ari umukuru w’igihugu, hafi y’ikibuga cy’indege gito cya Gabiro, maze baricwa.”

Uyu mutangabuhamya yavuze ko izo nzirakarengane zari izo mu majyaruguru y’igihugu, zikaba zarishwe kugirango impunzi z’abatutsi zari mu Buganda zizigarurire amasambu yazo. Ubu buhamya bwagaragaje ubucakura Efuperi ivugwaho bwo kwitirira abahutu n’ubwicanyi batakoze.

“Icyari kigambiriwe cyane muri ubu bwicanyi… kwari ugutegurira amasambu n’urwuri abantu [abatusi] bari barahungiye mu Buganda bariho batahuka. Kugeza n’uyu munsi, umuntu wese [tuvuge umuhutu] watekereza kujya guturayo, akaba ataravuye i Buganda, yaba ari mu kaga ko kuba yashinjwa kuba Interahamwe.”

Abandi bahamya bavuze ku bwicanyi bwo mu kigo cya gisirikare mu nkengero za parike. Uwahoze ari intasi nkuru ya girikare yavuze ko Gabiro yari “indiri y’ubwicanyi” ikomeye. Uyu mwofisiye yagize uruhare mu bikorwa byabereye muri komini Giti mu majyaruguru y’u Rwanda, kuva muri Mata 1994, ahantu hatari harishwe umututsi n’umwe muri jenoside. Yavuze ko kuba iyo komini yari itekanye ku batutsi bitabujije Efuperi kuhica abantu bagera ku bihumbi bitatu.

“Abari hagati y’ibihumbi bibiri n’ibihumbi bitatu [abasivili] barishwe aho muri komini Giti, hanyuma bajugunywa mu byobo bya rusange no mu misarani. Ibihumbi by’izindi nzirakarengane byazanywe i Gabiro. Hari indiri y’ubwicanyi, ikaba yari ifite umwihariko wo kuba ahantu hitaruye kandi hafi ya pariki y’Akagera…

…Hari igihe cyageze, inzirakarengane zo mu bice bikikije Giti zitangira kujya zipakirwa mu makamyo ya gisirikare, maze zikerekezwa i Gabiro aho zahitaga zicwa nta kindi.”

UBWICANYI BWO MU MAJYARUGURU Y’U RWANDA MBERE YA JENOSIDE

Hari benshi mu bahoze mu ngabo za Efuperi bahamije ko abaturage b’abahutu bagiye bagabwaho ibitero mbere ya jenoside, by’umwihariko mu majyaruguru y’u Rwanda.

Umusirikare umwe yavuze ko iyo Efuperi yabaga ikimara gufata ahantu — aho we yitaga “ahabohojwe”- abahutu bahasangwaga bahitaga bicwa bagatsembwa.

“Efuperi yari yarishyizemo ko abahutu ari abantu badashobotse kandi bagoye igenzura, ko ibyiza ari ukubikiza. Niyo mpamvu itsembabwoko riteguye neza ryashyizwe mu bikorwa muri ibyo ‘bice byabohozwaga.’ Hari uburyo bubiri bwakoreshwaga mu kugera kuri iyo ntego. Hari igihe Efuperi yateguraga ibitero by’ubuhotozi byagwagamo amagana y’inzirakarengane z’abahutu. Ababashaga kurokoka bahitaga bahunga bose bakava aho hantu. Hari n’igihe Efuperi yakoreshaga amayeri yo gukwirakwiza impuha ko hagiye kuza ibitero bikaze, ibyo bigatera abaturage guhunga.”

Umwe mu basirikare ba Efuperi wahoze akorera mu burengerazuba bw’amajyaruguru hafi ya Ruhengeri, yahamije ko mu mwaka w’1993, umugambi wa Inite ye wari uwo “kwica abanzi no guhamba cyangwa se gutwika imibiri yabo.” Uyu musirikare yavuze ko yabaye muri iyo inite kugeza mu kwa munani 1994.

“Intego y’itsinda ryacu yari iyo kwica abahutu. Byumvikane ko n’abagore n’abana bagombaga kwicwa. Twishe abantu benshi, bashobora kuba bagera no ku bihumbi ijana. Ugereranyije Inite yacu yicaga hagati y’abantu 150 na 200 buri munsi. Abantu bicishwaga umugozi (mu ijosi), amashashi ya palasitiki (gupfuka umutwe), inyundo, imishyo, cyangwa ibindi bikoresho byo ku mihana (nk’umupanga). Imibiri yahitaga ijugunywa mu byobo bya rusange, rimwe na rimwe igatwikwa.”

Mu cyegeranyo bakoze, abacukumbuzi b’itsinda ry’iperereza ridasanzwe bakomoje ku buryo bwinshi bukoreshwa na Efuperi mu kwica inzirakarengane, burimo kuniga inzirakarengane hifashishijwe imigozi, kuziheza umwuka hakoreshejwe amashashi, gutonyangiriza umushongi w’amashashi agurumana ku mubiri wazo, no kwahuranya abanyarwanda hakoreshejwe udufuni n’ibyuma by’imbunda.

UKO EFUPERI YACENGEYE MU NTERAHAMWE N’AMAYERI YAYO YO KWIYOBERANYA MU BITERO BYITIRIRWA ABANDI

Nk’uko bivugwa mu buhamya butatu bunyuranye, abasirikare ba Efuperi biyambikaga imyenda ya gisirikare bambuye ingabo z’u Rwanda [za guverinoma y’abahutu], noneho bagakoresha intwaro zo mu bwoko bwatangwaga na leta y’u Rwanda, maze bagakora ubwicanyi biyoberanyije. Umwe mu bahoze mu ngabo za Efuperi yasobanuye atya icyari kigambiriwe mu bitero byagabwe na Efuperi ku baturage b’abasivili muri “zoni tampo” (igice cyakuwemo ingabo zose z’abari bashyamiranye), mbere ya jenoside:

“Akazi ka ngombwa cyane kari ako gutesha umutwe ubutegetsi binyuze mu kwica abatutage. Igihe zari [Inkotanyi] zimaze gusubira inyuma, zakwirakwije impuha ko ubutegetsi [bwa Habyarimana] bwananiwe kurinda abaturage.”

Abo bakomando ba Efuperi, bitwaga “abatekinisiye,” baseseye mu Nterahamwe, bidegembya mu bice byagenzurwaga n’Interahamwe, hanyuma bishora mu kwica abaturage b’abatutsi kuri za bariyeri, nk’uko byahishuwe n’uwabihagazeho. Umusirikare umwe wahoze mu Nkotanyi yaragize ati: “Yewe, bicaga n’abatutsi.”

Undi musirikare wahoze ari Inkotanyi, akaba yarakoreraga muli Kigali kuva muri Mata kugera muri Nyakanga 1994, yiboneye n’amaso ye ibikorwa nk’ibyo. Yabwiye abacukumbuzi ko abakomando ba Efuperi biyambikaga imyenda y’abasirikare ba guverinoma, cyangwa bakiyoberanya nk’insoresore z’Interahamwe, hanyuma bakazamura imihoro bakica abatutsi kuri za bariyeri. Uyu mutangabuhamya yivugiye ko Inkotanyi zanyanyagije abarenga batayo ebyiri z’abakomando nk’abangaba mu murwa mukuru honyine.

“Bagenzuraga ‘ikimuranga’, bakicisha abantu imipanga neza neza nk’uko Interahamwe zabigenzaga, ku buryo nta muntu n’umwe washoboraga kubakeka.”

Ibitero byo kwiyoberanya byarakomeje kugeza nyuma cyane ya jenoside, nk’uko ubuhamya bwinshi bubyemeza. Umuntu umwe wahoze mu gisirikare cy’inkotanyi yari yarinjiyemo mu mwaka w’1991, yavuze ko muri Werurwe 1996 ubwo yari mu modoka imwe na liyetona-koloneli Kabarebe, koloneli Bagire, ndetse na Kagame, yumvise ikiganiro baganira ku mugambi wo gukora ibitero byagombaga gufasha mu kwisobanura ku bitero Efuperi yateganyaga kugaba muri Zayire.

“Kagame yababwiye ko yifuzaga kubona abasirikare be muri Zayire [yaje kwitwa Repubulika iharanira demukarasi ya Kongo] kugira ngo bagabe ibitero ku Rwanda, banateze umutekano mucye mu karere. Kagame yabwiye Kabarebe na Bagire ko nyuma y’icyo gitero bagomba kuzabwira itangazamakuru ko ari Interahamwe zateye u Rwanda. Ni uko ibitero byaje kugabwa mu ma komini yo muri Ruhengeri na Gisenyi. Kagame yababwiraga ko igitero nk’icyo cyari icyo kumufasha kubona uko abeshya amahanga ko hari impamvu igaragara yatumye ingabo ze zinjira muri Zayire.”

GUKOMA IMBARUTSO Y’IMENEKA RY’AMARASO HIFASHISHIJWE IGIKORWA CYO KWICA PEREZIDA W’UMUHUTU

Mu bihe byashize jenoside itararangira, abantu benshi bibwiraga ko indege yahanuwe n’intagondwa z’abahutu zitashakaga kurekura ubutegetsi. Na n’ubu hari abakibyibaza batyo. Nyamara abatangamakuru bahoze muri Efuperi bo babwiye urukiko ko Efuperi yateguye ikanashyira mu bikorwa iraswa ry’indege ya perezida Habyarimana.

Ni benshi mu bahoze mu ngabo za Efuperi bavuze ko mbere gato y’italiki ya gatandatu Mata, Efuperi yataburuye intwaro zari zarahishwe mu bubiko bw’ibanga munsi y’ubutaka, kugira ngo yitegure kwinjira mu ntambara. Abatangabuhamya babwiye itsinda ry’iperereza ridasanzwe ko Kagame n’ibyegera bye bya gisirikare bakoze inama eshatu zo gutegura icyo gitero. Muri raporo ivunaguye, abacukumbuzi b’umuryango w’abibumbye “bemeje” ko koko Efuperi yari ifite itsinda rishinzwe ibijyanye n’ibisasu bya misile birasirwa ku butaka mu guhanura indege. Hatanzwe amakuru ko ibyo bisasu byajyanywe i Kigali bivanywe ku birindiro bikuru bya Efuperi byari mu majyaruguru y’u Rwanda hafi y’umupaka w’Ubuganda. Itsinda ry’iperereza ridasanzwe ryagaragaje amazina y’abantu bavugwaho kuba aribo bazanye ibyo bisasu mu murwa mukuru, bakabihisha neza, hanyuma bakaba ari nabo babirasa ku ya gatandatu Mata 1994, kandi ryashyize Kagame Pawulo na Nyamwasa Kayumba ku rutonde rw’abashobora gukorerwa impapuro zo gutabwa muri yombi.

Umutangabuhamya umwe yatangaje ko mbere y’ihanurwa ry’indege, mu ijoro ryo ku ya gatandatu Mata, abarwanyi ba Efuperi basabwe kuba maso no kwitegura intambara umwanya uwo ariwo wose:

“Ku ya gatandatu Mata 1994, isaa moya z’ijoro, Kayonga yatanze itegeko ryo gukenyera no kwambarira urugamba. Ibi byasobanuraga kwitegura kugaba igitero umunota uwo ariwo wose. Kompanyi zose zasohotse mu kigo zikwira mu ndaki zari zikikije ingoro y’abadepite. Nka saa mbiri n’igice z’ijoro, nibwo nabonye indege yari itwaye perezida ituritswa.”

Undi mutangabuhamya yaje kubwirwa n’intasi ya gisirikare ko Efuperi ariyo ubwayo yahanuye indege:

“Yambwiye ko ari Efuperi yarashe indege ya Habyarimana. Gusa yikanzeo ko azimuye, maze ahita antera ubwoba ko azangirira nabi niba ntabitse iryo banga kure.”

Ubu buhamya bushimangira ibyavuye mu rindi perereza ry’urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho u Rwanda ryari ryarakozwe mbere mu w’1997, rikozwe n’umunyamategeko witwa Huriga Mikayire (Michael Hourigan), wegeranyije ibimenyetso byerekana ko Efuperi yagize akaboko mu iraswa ry’indege. Madamu Aruburu Luwiza, muri icyo gihe wari umushinjacyaha mukuru w’umuryango w’abibumbye, yahagaritse iryo perereza, anabwira bwana Huriga ko gukurikirana ibyaha by’iterabwoba atari ibintu byari mu nshingano ze; ibi bikaba byarumvikanye kenshi mu biganiro Huriga yagiye atanga aho avaniwe ku kazi ke mu gahinda kenshi, biturutse ku cyemezo cy’uyu mugore. Nyuma y’imyaka myinshi, Aruburu Luwiza yabwiye ikinyamakuru kitwa The Globe and Mail ko leta ya Kagame yatambamiye ubushake bwo gukora iperereza ku bwicanyi bwakozwe na Efuperi, mu gihe urukiko nta mikoro n’ubushobozi rwari rufite kugira ngo iperereza nk’iryo rikorwe mu mutuzo.

Mu w’2000, madamu Del Ponte Karila, wasimbuye Aruburu Luwiza, yasobanuye neza ko yifuzaga gukurikirana Efuperi. Mu ijambo yavuze muri 2002, yaragize ati: “Kuri jye, inzirakarengane ni inzirakarengane, icyaha kiri mu birebwa n’inshingano zanjye nk’umushinjacyaha [w’urukiko rwashyiriweho u Rwanda] ni icyaha; naho ubuvuke, ubwoko cyangwa ibitekerezo bya politiki by’uwakoze icyo cyaha, ntacyo bivuze na mba.”

“Niba ari Kagame waba wararashe indege akayihanura, ni ukuvuga ko Kagame yaba yarabaye umuntu washinjwa jenoside mbere y’abandi bose,” aya akaba ari amagambo yavugiye mu nama mpuzamahanga yateguwe na Sena y’Ubufaransa.

Nyamara mu mwaka w’2003, guverinoma ya leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika bwihanangirije Del Ponte ko niba yihaye gukomeza gahunda ye yo gushinja Efuperi, azirukanwa; ibi akaba yarabihishuye mu gitabo cy’ubuzima bwe. Nyuma y’amezi macye agiranye ikiganiro gikarishye na Petero Porosuperi, icyo gihe wari ambasaderi wa Amerika ushinzwe ibyaha by’intambara, Del Ponte yakuwe mu rukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho u Rwanda. Iyi nyandiko yasohotse mu bushyinguro mu buryo butazwi, yanditswe mu mwaka w’2003, ivuga ko Porosuperi yumvikanye n’urukiko ko inyandiko z’urukiko zijyanye no gukurikirana ibyaha byakozwe na Efuperi — hamwe n’ibimenyetso ku byaha byakozwe na Efuperi uko byakusanyijwe n’abacukumbuzi b’umuryango w’abibumbye — byavanwa mu rukiko rwa loni bikohererezwa guverinoma y’u Rwanda.

Porosuperi ubungubu ni umufatanyabikorwa muri sosiyete yitwa Arent Fox, aho afite inshingano z’ubujyanama no guhagarira leta y’u Rwanda mu bijyanye n’ubwunzi no gukemura amakimbirane n’impaka ku rwego mpuzamahanga, nk’uko bigaragara ku rubuga rw’iyo sosiyete. Porosuperi ntiyashubije ubusabe bwacu bwo kugira icyo abivugaho.

Bwana Jyalo Hasani wasimbuye Del Ponte, akaba ari nawe wakomeje imirimo y’umushinjacyaha mukuru w’urukiko rw’umuryango w’abibumbye kugeza rufunze imiryango mu mwaka w’2015, nta bushake na bucye yagaragaje bwo gushinja Efuperi. Mu mwaka w’2005, yashyigikiye icyemezo cy’urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho u Rwanda cyo kudashinja Efuperi, akaba yaranditse ko ingabo za Kagame zari “zarateye intambara yo kwibohora nyuma zigatsinda leta y’abahutu y’icyo gihe, zikanahagarika jenoside.”

Kuva mu mwaka w’1994, n’izindi nzego nyinshi z’umuryango w’abibumbye zakoze iperereza ku bwicanyi Efuperi yakoreye abaturage b’abahutu, haba mu Rwanda cyangwa mu bihugu by’abaturanyi. Izi raporo nazo zararigiswaga, cyangwa zikibasirwa, zikamaganirwa kure na leta ya Kigali. N’ubwo zikomoza no ku bindi byaha bivugwa ko byakozwe na Efuperi, ariko muri rusange zishimangira ibyatahuwe n’itsinda ry’iperereza ridasanzwe, ko Efuperi yakoze ibyaha bigambiriwe byibasiye imbaga y’abahutu, ahantu henshi.

Impuguke y’umunyamerika yitwa Geresoni Roberiti, yagiriwe icyizere n’umuyobozi mukuru w’ishami ry’umuryango w’abibumbye rishizwe impunzi ku isi, ni uko ihabwa akazi ko kureba niba impunzi z’abahutu zari zarahungiye mu bihugu by’abaturanyi zarashoboraga gutaha ntizigire icyo ziba; ubwo hari mu mpeshyi y’umwaka w’1994. Raporo ya bwana Geresoni yo mu mwaka w’1994 ntiyigeze ishyirwa ahagaragara bibaho, ariko

mu nyandiko yayo yageze hanze mu w’2010, uko yaba yarasohotse mu bubiko bikaba bitarigeze bimenyekana, habonekamo ko abacukumbuzi bageze ku mwanzuro ko ubwicanyi Efuperi yakoreye abahutu mu gihe cya jenoside bwari “bwitondewe kandi bukorwa kuri gahunda”, kandi bwaguyemo abaturage ibihumbi mirongo.

Umukozi mukuru w’ingabo z’umuryango w’abibumye zishinzwe kurinda amahoro ku isi , wari mu Rwanda, yatangaje ko bwana Geresoni yatanze umwanzuro we mu magambo gusa aho ngo yagaragaje ibimenyetso ko Efuperi yari yarakoreye abahutu jenoside “igenderewe, yateguwe neza, kandi yakozwe kuri gahunda.”

Hari Raporo y’umuryango w’abibumbye yiswe Mapingi, ikaba yaracukumbuye amahano yakozwe n’imitwe yitwaje intwaro ishyigikiwe na leta y’u Rwanda muri Repubulika iharanira demukarasi ya Kongo hagati y’ukwezi kwa Werurwe 1993 n’ukwezi kwa Kamena 2003, yanzuye ko ibitero byagabwe ku baturage b’abahutu muri icyo gihugu, “biramutse byemejwe mu rukiko rubifitiye ububasha, bishobora kwitwa ibyaha bya jenoside.” Nyamara nubwo habayeho byinshi byagaragajwe muri raporo Mapingi, Efuperi ntiyigeze na rimwe ikurikiranwa ku byaha byayo muri Repubulika iharanira demukarasi ya Kongo. Impirimbanyi z’uburenganzira bw’ikiremwamuntu nka Mukwege Deni, umuganga w’umunyekongo wegukanye igihembo cyitiriwe Nobeli mu mwaka w’2018 kubera ubwitange bwe mu kuvura abagore bakorewe ihohoterwa rishingiye ku gitsina, ntizahwemye guhamagarira umuryango mpuzamahanga gushyiraho urukiko rugamije gucira imanza abakoze amahano ndengakamere bose no guca umuco wo kudahana muri repubulika iharanira demukarasi ya Kongo. Ntibyumvikana ukuntu ishami ry’umuryango w’abibumbye rishinzwe uburenganzira bw’ikiremwamuntu ku isi, nyuma y’uko abacukumbuzi baryo banditse Raporo Mapingi ya paji 550, ryahisemo kugira ibanga rikomeye urutonde rw’abakekwaho gukora ayo mahano ndengakamere.

Imbaraga ubufaransa bwashyize mu iperereza ku iraswa rya Habyarimana nazo, mu buryo nk’ubwo, zananiwe kugeza ku mwanzuro wo kwemeza ba nyirugukora icyo cyaha. Mu mwaka w’2006, nyuma y’iperereza ry’igihe kinini, umucamanza w’umufaransa yasohoye inzandiko zo guta muri yombi abantu bakomeye bo muri Efuperi bafite aho bahuriye n’ihotorwa rya perezida w’u Rwanda, iyo ntambwe ikaba yarateye amakimbirane akomeye ku rwego rw’imibanire y’ibihugu hagati y’u Rwanda n’Ubufaransa. Mu Kuboza k’umwaka w’2018, urukiko rw’Ubufaransa rwatesheje agaciro ikirego kuri Efuperi, rwitwaje ko ibimenyetso byatanzwe bidahagije kugira go habe habaho urubanza; hanyuma ku ya gatatu Nyakanga 2020, urukiko rw’ubujurire rw’i Paris mu Bufaransa rwashimangiye icyo cyemezo, maze runemera ko nta subukurwa ry’iperereza rigomba kubaho.

Mu minsi ishize, abashakashatsi bagerageje kumenya umubare w’inzirakarengane z’ubugome n’urugomo, zaba iz’abatutsi cyangwa se iz’abahutu. Muri Mutarama, ikinyamakuru kitwa “Journal of Genocide Research” cyatangaje inyigo nyinshi zagereranyije ko umubare w’abatutsi bishwe muri jenoside uri hagati y’ibihumbi maganatanu n’ibihumbi maganatandatu, mu gihe abahutu bari hagati y’ibihumbi maganane n’ibihumbi maganatanu na mirongwitanu batakaje ubuzima mu myaka ya mirongurwenda. Madamu Marijke Verpoorteni w’umwarimukazi muri kaminuza ya Antwerp, avuga ko kugeza ubu bitarashoboka kumenya umubare wakwizerwa w’abahutu bishwe. Icyo apfa gukora, ni ukugerageza ukugerageza gucishiriza umubare w’abahutu bapfuye mu myaka ya za mirongwikenda, baba abazize intambara n’urugomo, cyangwa se abazize ingaruka z’ikwirakwira rikabije ry’indwara zandura mu nkambi z’impunzi, n’izibihe bibi by’intambara. Muri uko kugenekereza kwe, atanga umubare w’542,000, n’ubwo yiyemerera ubwe ko ikinyuranyo n’umubare wa nyawo gishobora kuba kinini.

Igitangaje ni uko ubwoko bumwe bwonyine aribwo bwemejwe, ku rwego mpuzamahanga, nk’inzirakarengane. Imbere mu Rwanda, inkiko gakondo za gacaca zaciriye urubanza abantu barenga miliyoni imwe n’ibihumbi maganabiri bavugwagaho kugira uruhare muri jenoside y’abatutsi. Ikigega cya leta cyo kugoboka abacitse ku icumu rya jenoside batishoboye nticyemera abahutu bishwe, n’iyo baba barishwe bariho bahisha cyangwa batabara abatutsi. Abahutu ntibemerewe kuririra no kwibuka ababo ku mugaragaro cyangwa gusaba ubutabera ku byaha byakozwe na Efuperi mu Rwanda.

Aho rumariye gufunga imiryango ku mugaragaro, urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho u Rwanda rwahindutse urukiko rw’imanza zitashojwe z’urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha (MICT mu magambo ahinnye y’icyongereza), runakomeza gushakisha ibikomerezwa by’abahutu bavugwaho kuba abajenosideri. Muri Gicurasi, igipolisi cy’Ubufaransa cyataye muri yombi umusaza w’imyaka mirongwinani n’irindwi y’amavuko, wari warabayeho mu bwihisho mu gihe cy’imyaka makumyabiri n’itandatu. Arashinjwa gushyigikira jenoside atera inkunga y’amafaranga iradiyo y’abahezanguni. Kabuga yahakanye ibyo ashinjwa, ubu akaba ari i “Lahe” mu Buholandi, aho ategereje gucirwa urubanza.

Urukiko rwasabwe kugira icyo ruvuga ku bijyanye no gushinja abayobozi bakuru ba Efuperi, ariko ntirwigeze rusubiza.

Judi Rever

Aho byavuye : https://judirever.medium.com/

swayibu1

Rwanda : Ubukene bukabije, ubushwanyi n’amahanga, ibibzo ni byinshi…

Ubukene bukabije bwugarije abanyarwanda

 

Hashize igihe kirekire, icyorezo cya covid 19, kitaratangira kwisi , murwanda harubukene bukabije , aho fpr ishyaka ririkubutegetsi , ryihariye amasoko yose , mugihugu , yewe bigeraho , naba motari , nabanyonzi , nibinamba , byiharirwa nabo , noneho bigezihihe , icyorezo cya covid 19 , kigaragara kwisi , ubukene bwarushijeho cyane,  aha ndavuga.muri rubanda rugufi , kuko ibikomerezwa , babantu bake barimugatsiko ka,  FPR, bo ntakibazo bafite, kuko bafite amafranga menshi, cyane abatunze,  nimiryango yabo.

Abanyarwanda bose batewe ubwoba , nubutegetsi buriho

 

Kugirango,  hatazagira numwe utekereza gukora coup d’état, cyangwa guhirika ubutegetsi , niyompamvu fpr , yabinjijemo ubwoba , buriwese agatinya mugenzi we , wabonye aho , umwana atinya ababyeyibe , nababyeyi bagatinya umwana  , abashakanye , nabo , bagatinyana , kuko buriwese , kuri mugenzi we nimaneko , kugezaho fpr ikoresha abakozi bomurugo , bagatanga , rapport  ahabigenewe , banyarwanda banyarwandakazi , nimuhaguruke , turwanye ingoma yigitugu.

 

Mu Rwanda ntawuvugishukuri

 

Umuntu wese uvugishukuri murwanda aricwa cyangwa agafungwa cyangwa akirukanwa kukazi
Muminsi ishize,  harinkuru imaze igihe ivugwa , kubitangaza makuru byohanze,  (social média) ko umwarimu muri kaminuza yurwanda  witwa Karasira Aimable, yirukanwe kukazi ke , kubwarimu , ntakindi yazize uretse kuvugana nabari muri opposition yurwanda nka madame  Victoire Ingabire Umuhoza nabandi nkawe. Fpr yabanje kumwihanangiriza we yanze kuva kwizima , kandi yagiye gushyingura umuhanzi Kizito mihigo ajya no mukiriyo cye ibyo kuri fpr nibyaha bikomeye cyane.

Ejobundi aho umunyamakuru wa radio itahuka witwa Serge , yatumiye uwahoze ari ministre wububanyi namahanga wurwanda akaba yarabaye na ambassadeur wurwanda muri ONU,  ariwe Gasana Anastase  ,yanenze Leta yurwanda iyobowe na président Paul  kagame avugako haba leta ebyiri , iyikuzimu , itagaragara , nindi iyimusozi igaragara,  kuri bose , iyikuzimu ninayo iyobora ifata nibyemezo, atanga urugero ko président Bizimungu akiyobora, nawe ari, ministre wububanyi namahanga, batigeze bamenyako , urwanda rwohereje ingabo muri Congo,  avugako niyo ministre avuga ategetswe kuvuga ibyo agatsiko kikuzimu kamutumye kuvuga , bitaribyo akirukanwa , arongera atanga urugero rwuko ministre Nduhungirehe yirukanwe kuko yihaye kuvuga ibyo agatsiko kikuzimu katamutumye.

 

Niryari u Rwanda ruzabana neza , n’ibihugu, byibituranyi

Birakomeye cyane,  kugirango u rwanda ruzabane neza , nibihugu byibituranyi , mugihe rukiyobowe na président Paul kagame ukoresha igitugu,  wita kunyungu ze cyane  aho kwita kunyungu zabo ayobora,  burimwanya  aba yikanga uwamukura kungoma , akabonako , bishobora guturuka murikimwe mubihugu , byibituranyi , niyo impamvu atumvikanaga na président jakaya murisho kikwete , wayoboraga Tanzanie  , amushinjako , yashakaga gutanga ninzira kuri FDLR kugirango yinjire murwanda imukureho , bityo ntiyumvikane na pierre Nkurunziza président wayoboraga iburundi,  nawe amushinja nkibyo yashinjaga uwa Tanzanie , imipaka arayifunga kugeza nanubu igifunze , arangije yibasira Uganda cyane , nayo ayishinjako président  yoweri kaguta museveni , acumbikiye.  Abarwanyi ba RNC  , bayobowe na Général kayumba nyamwasa.  Zitoreza mubuganda , kugirango  , zitere urwanda

Aribuka neza nkuko président museveni , yamufashije  cyane kugirango atere , urwanda,  anamushyire kubutegetsi , akureho ingoma ya Habyarimana , yumvako , umwanya kwariwowe wose , yashyigikira nabandi,  nawe bakamukuraho ,niyompamvu  , yumva yafunga imipaka , yose , nubwo abanyarwanda  , bakwicwa ninzara , ntacyo bimubwiye ,hasigaye umupaka , wa RDcongo wonyine , nawo ugenzurwa , cyane kuburyo ufashwe yambukanye 1kg cyibishyimbo cyangwa 1kg yisukari araswa agahitapfa banyarwanda banyarwandakazi nimuhaguruke dukureho ingoma yigitugu .

Mvuyekure Swaibu

article Evariste - Copie

Umwami n’umuntu ni uyu nguyu

               Ilibuliro

 

Mvuge Gisanura utuma basamura

Tumuhe ibnze tureke abanze

Aruta Ruganzu ubaka intorezo maze akasa

Arusha Rwabugiri w’inkotanyi ugira cyane

Uyu ni we witwa Imana y’i Rwanda.

 

Mbonye umwami uzi iby’ubwami ubirusha abandi

Uwo ni Mibambwe Sekarongoro ni Gisanura

Umuzirakuvusha usa n’Imana ni yo yamwimitse

Akaba umwami nyirurugero Imana yagennye ari Urugero

Ni muntu ni undi aho mu kirere akaba na Ndeshyo

N’ubwo abatwara ahora abareba akanabarebera

Ntagendera isumbwe no mu isunzu hahora ibambe;

 

Impuhwe n’imbabazi ntibimutashya biramutaha

Iburyo hari indyo ikiza abashage iramira abashonji

Mu rubega rundi ni inkongoro ngo azira nkota

Uyu Nyirubuntu ni umunyabuntu n‘umunyabintu

Aruta abandi abarusha ubwami ubwo ni umwami

Umugiramana yaramuhaye arabyakira ayiha wese

Ateye intambwe araratura areba bandi arabanikira;

 

Ikirenge agisumbya se mu Bumuntu ho ntibareshya

Se umubyara Kigeri Nyamuheshera ubu arasumbwa

Umutwe we utekeyemo ubumuntu we ni umuntu

Umutimamuntu ni wo mutoza yarawutoye ntumutonda

Umugaba nk’uyu agira igisingizo kimukwiyeakikwiza

Yagabiye benshi, incuro nyinshi , biramubera

Izina rivanze n’ikuzo rikamukuza ni Rugabishabirenge ;

 

Igihe kiraje ngo natange mvuge Mibambwe Gisanura

Koko aratanze nuko umwami wimye afite ibyo atanga

Ntabwo yimanye wa murage waroze abandi kwica

Dore wanze gukendera none urusaziyemo urukemba

Ntuvumwa uvumbitse mu bikwohwa by’abikanyiza

Warakanyaraye uba igikagange uzira gukanjakanjwa

Aho se mama uzima iyi ngoma iri imbere azawima?

 

Umwami utanze ahaye umwami wimye iyo ngoma

Mibambwe Sekarongoro Gisanura ararembereye

Ahaye umuhungu ari we Yuhi Mazimpaka uzazisiga

Ntahaguruka ngo ajye kurwana anyage iby’abandi

Ari ku nteko ni aho atetse n’aho yatirimuka ntarara

Si wa mutsemyi utsembatsemba icumu lihoga

Ni umunyabyago umutima muntu wabuze byose.

Nabe Igicumbi mu Banyarwanda

Aho gucumbikakwa Nyamuzinda

Ngo ahore azinduka ajya mu bantu

Najye mu mvugo avugwe iteka

Aarage urubyirugo uwo Gusanura.

Evariste Nsabimana

ethnies

Politiki n’amoko mu Rwanda

Ingingo irebana n’amoko mu Rwanda ikomeje kugibwaho impaka n’abantu b’ingeri nyinshi. Ahanini ingorane zikunze guturuka ku kutamenya amateka y’imihindagurikire y’ikoreshwa ry’ijambo « ubwoko » ku bijyanye n’umuryango nyarwanda. Ikindi gitera ingorane ni ukutamenya itandukanyirizo lili hagati y’ibyitwa ubu « amoko », ni ukuvuga abasinga, abazigaba, abatutsi, abatwa, abahutu, ababanda, abacyaba, abasindi…, isano bifitanye n’ukuntu byakoreshejwe muri politiki. Iyi nyandiko iragaruka kuri izi ngorane ari nako hagenda hagaragazwa ibisubizo ku bibazo bizikomokaho.

 

Ubundi ijambo ubwoko ku birebana n’abantu, likoreshwa bashaka kuvuga inkomoko. Ku bijyanye n’umuryango nyarwanda, iyo babajije umuntu ubwoko bwe baba bashaka kumenya inkomoko ye. Gusa aha igisubizo gitagwa akenshi ntabwo kiba kimwe ku banyarwanda bose: umwe ashobora kukubwira ati ndi umuzigaba, ndi umusinga, ndi umusindi…; undi akakubwira ati: ndi umututsi ndi umuhutu, ndi umutwa… Aha umuntu yakwibaza ibibazo bibili by’ingenzi:

 

1-Byagenze bite kugirango ibyo byose byitwe amoko?

2-Ali abo bazigaba, abasinga, abasindi  ari n‘abatutsi, abahutu, abatwa, ni bande biyitirira inyito y‘ abandi?

 

I. Amoko gakondo y’Abanyarwanda ni ayahe ?

 

Iyo tugiye mu mateka yanditswe kuri kariya karere u Rwanda rw’ubu rwubatseho, hari byinshi dusangamo bitwereka ko abanyarwanda bo hambere (aha reka tuvuge mbere y’umwanduko w’abazungu) bavugaga inkomoko yabo bashingiye ahanini ku moko. Ayo moko abanyarwanda bibonagamo yageraga kuri 20 : abasinga, abasindi, abazigaba, abagesera, ababanda, abacyaba, abega, abungura, abashambo, abatsobe, abakono, abaha n’ayandi… Ubuzima mbonezamubano ndetse n’ubujyanye na politike muri rusange bwari bushingiye kuri ayo moko. Umuntu yanavuga ko ariyo ubuzima muri rusange bwari bwubakiyeho…

 

Ibi bishobora gusobanurwa n’ingingo zikurikira :

Reka dutangirire ku bihugu bya mbere byari hariya u Rwanda rw’ubu ruri, ibyo bihugu byari byubakiye ku moko : Mubali w’abazigaba, Gisaka cy’abagesera, Nduga y’ababanda…n‘ibindi.

 

Mugushaka kuvuga abaturage babanjilije abandi hariya u Rwanda rw’ubu ruri, ni ukuvuga abasangwabutaka naho hakoreshwaga ayo moko ; bavugaga ko cyangwa bavuga ko abasinga aribo basangwabutaka.

 

Ibyo gushyingirana nabyo byagenderaga kuri ayo moko :  Reba nko mu bami b’abanyiginya baravugaga bati turafata abageni mu bakono, mu baha, mu bega, mu basinga… Muri uru rwego rwo gushyingirana, Bwana Fawustini Kabanza, mu kiganiro yagiranye na Gaspard Musabyimana kuri Radiyo Inkingi ku ya 19 mata 2020 yatanze ingero. Yavuze Nyirantobwa umukobwa w’umwami Mibambwe Sekarongoro warongowe kwa Mashira, avuga Bwiza bwa Mashira warongowe na Gahindiro bivugwa ko yari umuhungu w’uwo Mibambwe Sekarongoro… Kuri uru rutonde twakongeraho Mageni bivugwa ko yari umwuzukuru wa Nsoro Bihembe wategekaga u Bugesera ngo akaba yarazanye na Nyanguge atwite Mukobanya. Uwo Mageni yarongowe kwa Ngoga wo mu Nduga ya Mashira. Abo bose, nk’uko Kabanza abivuga, ntawagiye mu rugo rw’undi gushaka umugeni ari umututsi, ari umuhutu cyangwa se umutwa.

 

Urundi rugero ni rwa Ruganzu Bwimba igihe bavuga ko yari amaze gufata icyemezo cyo kujya gupfira mu Gisaka nk’umutabazi, yagize ati: „Umusindi yarenze akarwa…“ ashaka kuvuga ko nk’umusindi adashobora gusubira ku cyemezo yafashe. Izi ngero zose zirerekana ko mugushaka kugaragaza inkomoko ye, umunyarwanda wo hambere ni amoko abasinga, ababanda, abagesera,… yashyiraga imbere.

 

Ntawashyiraga imbere ubututsi, ubuhutu cyangwa ubutwa kuko nkeka ko bwari butaraza (ndashaka kuvuga muri icyo gihe cya Ruganzu Bwimba amateka avuga ko yabayeho mu kinyejana cya cumi nagatanu). Bishatse kuvuga ko ariya moko (abasinga, abazigaba, ababanda,…) yabayeho mbere y’ubututsi, ubuhutu n‘ubutwa. Aha naho ndahahurira na Kabanza wari muri kiriya kiganiro navuze haruguru. Iyi ngingo ni ingenzi kuyumva neza kuko idufasha kumva impamvu dusanga abatutsi, abahutu, abatwa mu bazigaba, abasinga, ababanda n’ahandi mu yandi moko…

 

II. Abatwa, abatutsi, abahutu twavuga ko batangiye kuvugwa ryari?

 

Ntibyoroshye gusubiza iki kibazo. Iyo umuntu asomye amateka yerekeranye n‘ariya moko (abazigaba, abasinga, ababanda…) yari aturiye hariya u Rwanda rw’ubu ruri ndetse no muri kariya karere k’ibiyaga bigari kose akayasesengura arinako ayagereranya, usanga ahagana mu kinyejana cya cumi na gatandatu gishyira icya cumi na kalindwi gitangira ibintu byaratangiye guhinduka. Amoko amwe yashatse kubaka ibihugu binini, birenze akagali kiyitirira ubwoko bumwe. Ahangaha umuntu ashobora kuvuga ko bariya basindi ba mbere ni ukuvuga ba Bwimba aribwo bashobora kuba baratangiye kwagura akagali kabo kazavamo u Rwanda tuzi ubu…

 

Ugutera imbere by’ako kagari kwaranzwe n’ibintu bibiri by’igenzi:

-Gusenya ibihugu bishingiye ku moko bikomekwa kuri icyo cy’abasindi byagize ingaruka mbi kuri ayo moko kuko akenshi abagize ayo moko, bamwe baricwaga abandi bagatorongera;

-Havutse ingenabitekerezo nshya ishingiye kuri politiki y’imiyoborere y’icyo gihugu cyari gitangiye kuba kinini cyangwa se kwaguka inajyanye kandi n’ingamba zo kwigarurira ibindi bihugu. Ni muri uru rwego rujyanye niyo ngengabitekerezo ya politique n‘uko yagiye ikura nkeka ko amagambo abahutu, abatutsi, abatwa ashobora kuba yaratangiye gukoreshwa.

 

Mu gitabo cye Intwari z’Imbanza zubatse u Rwanda rugahamya igitinyiro. Amateka y’umushinga wo kubaka u Rwanda, umaze imyaka 926 (1091-2017), Yohani wa Mungu Nsanzabera avuga ko ari ku gihe cy‘umwami Cyilima Rugwe (bavuga ko yabayeho ahagana mu kinyejana cya cumi na gatandatu) ayo magambo yinjijwe mu mibereho y’abanyarwanda asobanura ibyiciro by’ubudehe mu rwego rw’ubworozi bw’inka…

 

Vansina we, mu gitabo cye “Le Rwanda ancien. Le royaume nyiginya” akavuga ko ari ku gihe cy‘umwami Cyilima Rujugira (bavuga ko yabayeho ahagana mu kinyejana cya cumi n’umunani) ayo magambo yakoreshejwe mu rwego rw’intambara. Bashaka gutandukanya abarasanaga ku rugamba bitaga abatutsi n’abatwaraga ibikoresho, impamba… bitaga abahutu.

 

Biragoye kwemeza ko biriya bice (abatwa, abatutsi, abahutu) byariho ku gihe cya Rugwe nk’uko Nsanzabera abivuga kubera ko twabonye haruguru ko muri biriya bihe bya Bwimba bivugwa ko ariwe wabyaye Rugwe, amoko abasinga, ababanda, abasindi… ariyo yakoreshwaga. Ko ibyo bice byaba byaratangiye gukoreshwa ku buryo bwimbitse mu buzima mbonezamubano no muri politiki ku gihe cya Rujugira birashoboka. Nanone ahangaha naho ariko ntabwo ubushakashatsi bwari bwatangaza itariki idakuka.

 

Icyigenzi aba bashakashatsi bahuriyeho, ni uko ayo magambo yabayeho kuva mbere y’umwaduko w’abazungu; kandi ko yadutse asobanura catégories sociales. Erega si hariya u Rwanda ruri gusa ayo magambo yakoreshejwe avuga catégories sociales. Abanyanga, Abamongo bo muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo nabo barayakoreshaga…Uwaba ashaka kumenya neza ibyerekeranye nabo banyanga cyangwa abo bamongo, livre nsengimanayabisanga mu gitabo mperutse gusohora cyitwa Histoire du Rwanda. Désidéologisation et restitution des faits historiques…  Editions Sources du Nil, Lille, 2020.

 

Ukwaduka kw’amagambo abahutu, abatutsi, abatwa n’ikoreshwa ryayo bigaragara ko bishobora kuba byabayeho nyuma ya Ruganzu Bwimba bivugwa ko uyu yabayeho ahagana mu kinyejana cya cumi na gatandatu ntibigomba gufatwa nk’intangiriro y’amateka y’u Rwanda cyangwa se aya kariya karere u Rwanda rw’ubu rwubatseho. Mbere y’icyo kinyejana, ako karere kariho n’amateka yako, gatuwe n’amoko gakondo: ababanda, abacyaba, abasindi, abazigaba, abasinga, abagesera…yarangwaga n’imirimo inyuranye: ubuhinzi, ubworozi, ubucuzi… Haruguru twabonye ko amoko amwe yari yarashoboye no kubaka ibihugu yigengagaho. Ibyo bikorwa byose ntibyavumbukiyeho gutyo gusa; byatanzwe n’iterambere ubushakashatsi buvana ahagana imyaka 500.000 mbere y’umwaduko wa Kristu.

 

Ibindi bintu bibili by’igenzi umuntu yavuga ahereye kuri buriya bushakatsi bwa Nsanzabera na Vansina ni uko izo nyito z’ubuhutu, ubututsi n’ubutwa zaje nyuma y’amoko (abasindi, ababanda…) kandi ko abinjiye cyangwa abinjijwe mu byiciro izo nyito zasobanuraga, batavaga muri za Kameruni, za Tchad cyangwa se muri za Abisiniya…

 

Gushingira gusa ngo ko abantu basa maze umuntu akabahuza inkomoko ntabwo bihagije. Niyo mpamvu guhuza abahutu n’abakamerune, abatutsi n’abapeule cyangwa n’abosomali, ukongeraho ko baje mu Rwanda ariyo baturutse bakahasanga abatwa ataribyo. Ese niba ubu abo bahutu, abo batututsi bavuga ururimi rumwe rw‘Ikinyarwanda, muri ibyo bihugu bya Kameruni, Tchad, Somalie… naho bavuga cyangwa bavugaga ururimi rw’Ikinyarwanda? Niba se abahutu n’abatutsi barigiye urwo rurimi rw’Ikinyarwanda ku batwa basanze mu Rwanda, izindi ndimi baje bavuga ni izihe? Ese hari ibisigisigi byazo dusanga mu Kinyarwanda? Kugeza ubu abahanga mu ndimi ntabyo barerekana. Izo nkomoko zihabwa abo banyarwanda ni impimbano, ntaho zihuriye n’ukuri; zatangajwe mu rwego rwo gukwirakwiza ingengabitekerezo ya politiki igamije gufata ubutegetsi, kubugundira no kubuheza ho abandi nk’uko ubu hari abanyarwanda bashaka kwisanisha n’abayahudi mu rwego rwo gushaka kwitandukanya n’abandi banyarwanda kugirango bashobore kubatsikamira…

 

III. None umuntu yasobanura ate ukuntu abatutsi, abatwa, abahutu bahurira mu moko?

 

Niba ibyo bice (abatutsi, abatwa, abahutu) byaraje nyuma y’amoko (abazigaba, ababanda, abasinga, n’ayandi …) birumvikana ko byagiye bivana abantu muri ayo moko yariho bitewe n’imilimo babaga bahamagariwe gukora. Ahangaha umuntu yavuga ko byagiye byoroshwa ni uko abari bagize ubwoko ubu n’ubu batari bafite ubumenyi bumwe ku bijyanye n’imibereho mbonezamubano na politiki, ntibakoraga imilimo imwe kandi ntibari bakungahaye kimwe. Umuntu yavuga ko bagiye binjira cyangwa se binjizwa muri ibyo bice bitewe ni uko babayeho  cyangwa n’icyo bazanye. Mu basinga hashoboraga kuboneka abinjira cyangwa se abinjizwa muri catégorie y’abatutsi, iy’abahutu n’iy’abatwa. Mu basindi, mu bazigaba n’ahandi mu yandi moko naho byashoboraga kuba uko…

 

Ikindi gisobanura uruhurirane rw’abahutu, abatutsi n’abatwa mu moko ni uko ari ayo moko cyangwa se ibyo bice by’abahutu, abatwa n’abatutsi nta gipande na kimwe cyari gifunze. Abanyarwanda binjiraga mu bwoko cyangwa mu gice iki n’iki bakagisohokamo kubera impamvu zinyuranye: gushyingirana, ubuhake, … Politiki nayo hari igihe yabigiragamo uruhare. Urugero twavuga ahangaha n’urw’umuryango wa Padiri Kagame Alegisi dusanga mu gitabo cya Antoine Nyagahene.  Ku rupapro rwa 252 Bwana Nyagahene avuga ko umuryango wa Padiri Alexis Kagame w’abahabwa wo mu bwoko bw’abasinga winjijwe mu batutsi n’umwami w’abanyiginya Kigeli Rwabugili mu kinyejyana cya cumi n’icyenda bitewe nuko Buki, sekuru wa Padiri Kagame yafashije uwo mwami mu bitero yagabye mu karere yari atuyemo ko mu Ndorwa.

 

IV. Abatwa, abatutsi, abahutu baje kuba amoko bigenze gute?

 

Amagambo «abahutu, abatutsi n’abatwa» ni ayo mu rulimi rw’Ikinyarwanda, bivuze ko ntaho ahuriye n’umwaduko w’bazungu mu Rwanda; yariho kandi yarakoreshwaga mbere y’ukuza kwabo mu Rwanda. Amagambo « ubwoko – amoko » nayo yabagaho mbere yuko abazungu bagera mu Rwanda kuko yakoreshwaga ku basinga, ababanda, abasindi, abazigaba,… Abazungu bamaze kwemeza ko « abahutu, abatutsi n’abatwa »  ari za « ethnies », cyangwa se «races» no kubavangura hakurikijwe isura bashatse igisobanuro cy’ayo magambo mu Kinyarwanda, ni uko bafata ya magambo « ubwoko-amoko »; kubera ingufu bari bafite, abazungu bemeje iyo nyito nshya y’amagambo « abahutu, abatutsi n’abatwa »; abategetsi b’abanyarwanda bategekanaga nabo, ni ukuvuga abami b’abanyiginya barayakira, abiru babo barayikwirakwiza.  Muri make rero, umuntu yavuga ko ayo «moko mashya» yazanywe kandi ashyigikirwa n’abari bafite ingufu mu rwego rwa politiki no mu rw’ubukungu. Niyo mpamvu ayo «moko mashya» yahise ahabwa agaciro kurusha yayandi gakondo abanyarwanda bibonagamo.

 

Ugutakaza agaciro kw’amoko cyangwa uguta imbaraga kwayo kubera impamvu za politique byatumye ibyo bice bindi by’abanyarwanda (abatwa, abatutsi, abahutu) biza imbere mu mibereho mbonezamubano no muri politiki. Uko kuza imbere kw’ibyo bice kwagiye kuza buhoro buhoro: Mbere y’umwaduko w’abazungu ibyo bice byarakoreshejwe: tubisanga mu bitekerezo bikubiye mu gitabo cyandistwe na André Coupez na Kamanzi; mu bucurabwenge, cyane cyane muri cya gisigo cyarataga ibisekuru by’abami b’abanyiginya bivugwa ko abashinzwe uwo murimo bagizwe abakozi bakuru b’ibwami kuva ku ngoma ya Kigeli Mukobanya. Iyo abacurabwenge bavugaga icyo gisigo batangiriraga ku mwami uriho. Nk’iyo bakivugaga ku ngoma ya Mutara Rudahigwa, bagira bati: „uyu mwami twimitse ni Mutara. Izina rye ry’ubututsi ni Rudahigwa. Nyina umubyara ni Nyiramavugo. Izina rye ry’ubututsi ni Kankazi… “; bagakomeza batyo kugeza kuri Gihanga bavugaga ko ariwe wahimbye ingoma yabo.

 

Mu gihe cya gikolonize no mu gihe cya za Repubulika: iya mbere, iya kabili n’iya gatatu ubu nandika iyi nyandiko turimo, naho ibyo bice byarakoreshejwe ndetse bihabwa n’ingufu kuko byakoreshejwe cyane n’abanyapolitike kugirango bagere ku nyungu zabo. Uko kuza imbere kw’ibyo bice kwagiye gusubiza inyuma amoko abanyarwanda bibonagamo ni ukuvuga abazigaba, abasinga, abasindi… ari nako ibyo bice byagiye bifata izina ubwoko ku buryo muri iki gihe iyo ikibazo cyerekeranye n’ubwoko kibajijwe ntabwo ari kenshi umuntu yumva abasinga, abazigaba…; akenshi umuntu yumva abatwa, abatutsi, abahutu…

 

Ijambo ubwoko twavuga rero ko ryakoreshwaga mbere na mbere kuri ariya moko gakondo  abasinga, ababanda, abega, abasindi… ariko ko ryaje gukoreshwa ku abatwa, abatutsi, abahutu ahanini bitewe n’abanyapolitiki bashakaga gukurakuza inyungu zabo…

 

V. Ayo moko gakondo twavuga ko yatangiye kuvugwa ryari?

 

Kimwe n’uko haruguru navuze ko bitoroshye kubona italiki amagambo abatwa, abatutsi, abatwa yatangiriyeho gukoreshwa mu mibereho mbonezamubano no muri politiki by’abanyarwanda ndagiragango aha naho ku berebana n’ariya moko gakondo mvuge ko bigoye gutanga igihe yavukiye n’ubwo bwose bigaragara ko yabanjirije abahutu, abatwa, abatutsi. Icyo umuntu yavuga ni uko bishoboka ko yabayeho akomotse ku iterambere mbonezamubano ry’abaturage bari baturiye kariya karere u Rwanda rw’ubu rwubatseho niry’utundi turere tugakikije. Ikindi umuntu yavuga ni uko ayo moko yavuye mu baturage bamwe, bari bamaze kumenyerana, barangwa n’umuco umwe banavuga ururimi rumwe ruzaba mu iterambere ryago Ikinyarwanda, Ikirundi, Igishi… Amwe muri ayo moko yavukiye muri kariya karere u Rwanda rw’ubu ruri, andi hanze yako.

 

Uko imyaka yagendaga ishira indi igataha ni nako ayo moko yagendaga ahindura isura, amwe akimuka agahindura inturo; byageze naho amoko amwe akomera maze yubaka ibihugu.  Muri kariya karere u Rwanda rw’ubu ruri, nk’uko biboneka hejuru muri iyi nyandiko umuntu yavuga u Mubali w’abazigaba, Nduga y’ababanda, u Bugara bw’abacyaba…

 

Kuri ibi birebana no kwimuka kw’amoko, ayaje gutura muri ako karere aturutse ahandi, ntabwo yavuye kure yako kuko mu muco uranga abagatuye ubu nta bimenyetso bibyerekana. Imibanire hagati y’amoko yategekaga ibihugu byayo ntabwo buri gihe yari myiza. Mu gushaka kwagura ibihugu byayo, amoko amwe yashoje intambara ku yandi moko maze ibihugu by’atsinzwe bikomekwa ku by’atsinze.

 

Ni muri urwo rwego ibihugu bimwe byagutse ibindi bigasenyuka burundu. Uku gusenyuka kw’ibihugu bimwe kwakulikirwaga n’ugutakaza ingufu kw’amoko yabiyoboraga. Mu by’ukuri, izi ntambara nizo zatangiye kwaka ingufu amoko k’ishingigiro ryubakirwaho ibihugu. Abatsindaga intambara, ibihugu byabo bikaguka, bashatse izindi nkingi z’ubutegetsi bwabo, maze bashyiraho ingamba n’ingengabitekerezo zituma bayobora ibyo bihugu byabo byagenda byaguka ari nako zigenda zigabanya ingufu z’amoko. Byabaye ngombwa ko bashyiraho ibyiciro mu baturage bituma babayobora; muri kariya karere u Rwanda rw’ubu rwubatseho ibyo byiciro nibyo byiswe abatwa, abahutu, abatutsi. Ibi nabyo byaje biturutse mu baturage bamwe, bafite umuco umwe kandi banavuga ururimi rumwe.  Birashoboka kandi ko ayo moko n’ibyo byiciro ari ibya vuba (nanone aha byumvikane ku rwego rw’amateka) ugereranije n’u Rwanda gakondo n’ururimi rwarwo Ikinyarwanda rwabibanjirije.

 

Umwanzuro

 

Mu gusoza, icyo twavana muri aya mateka y’amoko: abasinga, abazigaba, abasindi… cyangwa no muri ariya yerekeranye na biriya bice bindi abatwa, abatutsi, abahutu ni uko byose byakomotse ku iterambere ry‘imbonezamubano, ry‘ubukungu cyangwa rya politike ry’umuryango nyarwanda. Bishatse kuvuga ko Abanyarwanda muri iryo terambere ryabo aribo batanze, ku bihe bitandukanye na none, ayo moko yose n’ibyo bice byose. Niyo mpamvu ayo moko yose n’ibyo bice byose bihuriye ku muco umwe: ururimi rumwe, gushyingirana, guturana bivanze mu gihugu, indyo imwe, imyambalire imwe, n’ibindi. Muri make Abanyarwanda ni bamwe! Atari ibyo byagorana gusobanura ukuntu abahutu, abatutsi n‘abatwa (niba atari bamwe) baboneka mu bwoko bumwe nk’ubw’abazigaba aho abawugize bavuga ko bukomoka ku mukurambere umwe bita Kazigaba…

 

Mu mateka y’abanyarwanda, habayeho politiki mbi zishingiye ku ngengabitekerezo z’irondakoko zabagabanyijemo ibice.

Ingaruka zizo politiki zaranzwe n’ibibi byinshi: ubwicanyi, guhunga igihugu, kwikubira ibyiza by’igihugu…Ariko icyagararagaye ni uko kuva mbere y’umwaduko w’abazungu izo politiki zajyaho, nta bwoko cyangwa igice na kimwe cyitandukanije n’abandi banyarwanda ngo gituye mu gipande cyacyo cy’igihugu cy’u Rwanda, ngo gishyireho ururumi rwacyo, imyambalire yacyo, indyo yacyo…kubera ko wa muco umwe ubaranga wakomeje kubagira umwe. Uyu muco w’ubumwe hagati mu Banyarwanda ni ubere imbaraga abakiri bato, barwanire guha u Rwanda icyerekezo cy’ubumuntu kizira amacakubili aho yaturuka aho ariho hose kuko ubwo bumuntu aribwo soko y’iterambere rirambye.

 

 

Inosenti Nsengimana

Kanama 2020

 

 

Hist Politiki n’amoko mu Rwanda

Perezida Paul Kagame; ugufunga imbibi u Rwanda ruhana n’amahanga ntibigamije inyungu n’ineza y’abantu

Swaibu Mvuyekure

Swaibu Mvuyekure

Njya nicara nkibaza byinshi ku gihugu cyacu U Rwanda n,Abanyarwanda uko babayeho nkagira agahinda kenshi cyane.

Ubusanzwe ibihugu byinshi bikunze kwishyira hamwe bigashinga imiryango ibihuza, bigatsuraumubano n,ubufatanye hagati yabyo.

Ni muri uryo rwego hagati y’Urwanda, Zaîre, Tanzania n’Uburundi hari harashyizwe ho CEPGL, UAC, SADEC, OBEKA n’indi miryango.

Iyo miryango yose yari igamije ukwishyira hamwe kw’abatuye ibihugu by’akarere, ubuhahirane, ugushyira hamwe n,ubwisanzure.

Abayobozi bari bagamije gukururiza umuco w’ubuvandimwe n’ubusabane byo ntandaro y’Amahoro « n’ Ijya mbere ».

Intego y’ibanze yari ugukura abatuye akarere mu bwigunge cyane cyane ku bihugu bitegereye inkombe z’inyanja nk’u Rwanda n’Uburundi n,uduce tumwe na tumwe tw’uburasira zuba za RDC.

Najyaga numva abankuriye bavuga ko runaka wari ufite imitungo ko yabaga yaragiye Bugande cyangwa Tanzaniya guhaha. Abi nkwakuzi babaga baratembeye bakagera za Katanga Soudani ndetse na Zambiya.

Ibyo byaje no gutuma abahungaga u Rwanda ku mpamvu zinyuranye bumva bisanga aho mu mahanga yabakiraga nta mususu nkuko abategetsi bacu bakiraga nabo abahungiye mu gihugu cyacu.

Aha niho nibaza icyo ubutegetsi bwubu buba butekereza iyo bufashe ingamba zo twiteranya n’ibihugu bidukikije ; hagafungwa inkiko mu majyepfo y’u Rwanda ari nako biterura ku Burundi, mu majya ruguru y’u Rwanda bihenura k’U Bugande banabushotora buri munsi, batsura umubano w’akazuyaze na Tanzania na Congo biyibagiza ko nubwo baba bashyigikiwe n’amahanga akomeye, uhiriwe ho n’inzu atabarwa n’abavuye kure inzu yakonkotse kera. Ko umuturanyi ariwe ugutabara mu makuba iyo bigeze mu mahina. Ubuse yagize ikiza kugwirira u Rwanda gikomeye ubutegetsi bw’ubu bwahungira he ?

Yego ubutegetsi bwizeza abatura Rwanda ko «iterambere » byitwa ko bwazanye buzabarengera ; ko hari ibibuga n’indege bizakoreshwa mu kwagura amarembo no guhahirana n’ibihugu bindi bishyigikiye imiyoborere yabwo. Ibyo se bizatabara rubanda ituye mu byaro ikaba idafite n’urwara rwo kwishima ?

Iyo usesenguye imibereho ya rubanda n,ukuntu ibiciro by’ibiribwa by’ibanze bizamuka buri munsi uko bukeye uko bwije, usanga ahazaza ejo h’u Rwanda hateye ubwoba.

Iyo Kagame Paulo afata icyemezo cy’uko umunyarwanda uzafatwa yambuka umupaka ajya guhaha cyangwa gushaka amaramuko hanze araswa, ko uwashoboye guca inshuro akagarukana ibiro bitanu bya kawunga cyangwa ikiro cy’isukari akubitwa urusasu, ni icyemezo gifite uburemere bukomeye cyo ugushyira mu bikorwa intego y’itsemabatsemba ritavugwa izina ariko abaturarwanda babona ribamarira ku cumu ruhongohongo.

Amahanga ni atabare amazi atararenga inkombe. Ufurika, Uburaya, Aziya n’Amerika ntimuzavuge ko mutatabajwe ko ntacyo mwabonye !!!!

Swaibu Mvuyekure

Mvuyekure Swaibu Ku rupfu rwa Joy Agaba mushiki wa Generali Major Gisa Rwigema 24.11.2019

Swaibu Mvuyekure

Swaibu Mvuyekure

Nyuma yuko uwarindaga Generali RWIGEMA GISA FRED avugiye ku maradiyo ko Afande Rwigema yishwe na Paulo Kagame mugihe intambara yo kubohoza u Rwanda yatangiraga, benshi muri twe twaje kugwa mu gatangaro tumenye ukuntu Kagame yacuze umugambi wo guhitana uwari umukuriye ku rugamba. Byaje kumenyekana ari uko uwamurindaga abihishuriye mushiki wa Rwigema Joy Agaba.

Ibyo byabaye nko kumushumuriza umwicanyi uzirusha intambwe. Mugihe we yumvaga ko ugusangira ibyo yamenye akoresheje Facebook n’abavandimwe n’inshuti z’umuryango ntiyamenyaga ko uwabahekuye yari yaramushize ho ingenza ko ibyo yandikaga n’ibyo yavugaga byose intasi za Kagame zabiteraga mu matwi . Intozo za Kagame arizo Nyakarundi wari muri America, Dan Munyuza wari akuriye DMI akanagendana uruhago rw’utuzi duhumanya zaje gushyira mu bikorwa icyemezo cya Sebuja cyo gutangira gahunda yo guca inzigo mu muryango wa Rwigema. Nkuko byagenjwe ku yindi miryango y’abatavuga rumwe na Paulo Kagame bavukije ubuzima uwo nyampinga byita ko ari umwijima wabanje kumurya nkabandi banyerejwe niyo “team infernal”. Abo bose bahitannywe kuri ubwo buryo bapfa bataka umwijima banabyimbye inda. Abamaze gupfa ako kageni ni benshi cyane. µ

Ikibabaje kandi n’uko Rwigema ariwe wari wahesheje umwanya ukomeye Kagame. Koko ngo uvura umutindi ijisho akarigukanurira. Umurambo wa Agaba Joy wahise ujyannwa shishi itabona ahatazwi ngo ejo hatazavaho abantu bakoresha autopsie yazaga gutuma bamenya ikimuhitanye. Ikindi kibabaje n’uko inshyingurwa rye batemereye inshuti n’abavandimwe kumuherekeza.

Abaje gufata mu mugongo bari bake kandi byabaye ngombwa ko bitwikira ijoro. Ikibabaje n’uko kuva ubwo umugore n’abana ba nyakwigendera Rwigema barushijeho gushyirwa ho ingenza ngo hatagira uwutera inkunga cyangwa se ngo uwutabarize. Basa nk’abahawe akato ngo batagira uwo babwira agahinda babamo. Uwo kagame yishe yumva yarimbura n’abe bose ibyo nibyo ba nyirarume bari barahereye umudende “Guca Inzigo”!!!! Afurika, Uburayi, Aziya n’Amerika nimutabare amazi atarenga inkombe.

Mvuyekure Swaibu

Incamake y’igitabo « Opération Havila » cya Martin Ukobizaba. Ese Abatutsi bafite isano n’Abayahudi?

https://editions-scribe.com/

https://editions-scribe.com/

I. INKOMOKO Y’IZINA RY’IGITABO

Izina ry’iki gitabo rigizwe n’amagambo abiri :
Opération : bisobanura ibitekerezo n’ibikorwa byose bigamije gutegura intambara yo kwigarurira akarere k’Ibiyaga Bigali by’Africa. Havila : iryo zina rituruka k’umwuzukuru wa Noa, witwaga Havila mwene Koush,niwe wahawe umurage wo gutura akarere k’Africa gaherereye hepho ya Ethiopia na Nubia, aliyo Sudani y’ubu. Bivugwa kuva cyera ku ngoma yaba Pharaon bo mu Misiri ko ako karere gakize cyane ku mutungo kamere. Abanya Misiri ba kera bavugaga ko « Zahabu yo mu karere ka Havila wayigereranya no kuyora umukungugu wo mu nzira nyabagendwa ». Niyo mpamvu kuva mu myaka ibihumbi bitatu ishize, amahanga yose yahagurukiye kwigarurira ako karere. Yewe, no muli BIBLIA mu gitabo k’ Intangiriro (Ge: 2,10-14 ) bavuga ko akarere ka Havila karangwa n’ubutaka bwiza bubamo inzuzi n’ibiyaga bigali, kagakungahara kuli zahabu n’amabuye y’agaciro atagira ingano. Icyo gitabo kivuga ko Ubusitani bwa Eden Imana yaremeyemo abantu ba mbere alibo Adamu na Eva n’inyamaswa zose n’imitungo yose ya mbere y’isi bwali muli ako karere, ahali isoko y’inzuzi za Pishon (Nil Blanc) na Guihon (Nil Bleu).

 

Ibi nibyo bisobanura impamvu ibihugu by’ibihangange kw’isi byashyize ingufu zishoboka zose mu gushakisha amasoko y’uruzi rwa Nil bashoboye kugeraho mu ntangiriro z’ikinyejana cya 20, ubwo bakandagiraga mu bihugu by’Urwanda n’ Uburundi. Muli icyo gihe, buli gihugu cy’igihangange cyifuzaga kwigarurira byibura igipande kimwe cy’akarere gakomokamo umwe mu migezi igize amasoko ya Nil. Iby’ingenzi muli ibyo bihugu byashakaga gukoloniza umugabane w’Africa byali Ubwongereza, Ubudage, Ubufransa , n’Ububiligi. Ibi bishobora gusobanura impamvu igihugu nk’u Rwanda cyacagaguwemo ibice maze intara zacyo bakazigabanya: Bufumbira, Ndorwa, Karagwe, Bwishya, Masisi, Rutsuru, Hunde, Tongo etc.

 

Bivugwa kandi ko ibyo bihugu byashakishaga ku rundi ruhande agasanduku kabitsemo Amategeko Cumi Imana yahereye Musa ku musozi wa Sinaï (Arche d’Alliance d’Israël). Ako gasanduku gaha ugatunze wese ubudahangarwa mu ntambara kaba gahishwe mu gihugu cya Ethiopia. Kaba karageze muli icyo gihugu biturutse ku Mwamikazi MAKEDA (Reine de Saba ou Sheba Queen) wabyaranye umwana w’umuhungu n’Umwami SALOMONI wa Israël. Uwo mwana wiswe Menelik Ier wimitswe amaze gukura muli Israël kw’izina rya David II niwe waba yarazanye ako gasanduku muli Ethiopia amaze kugasimbuza ako bijya gusa (fake) mu ngoro ya Salomoni yali yubatse i Yerusalemu. Iyo nkuru tuyikesha igitabo cy’ikuzo ry’Abami ba Ethiopia kitwa » KEBRA NEGAST ».

 

II. ABANTU BOSE BATUYE ISI KIMWE N’AMAJYAMBERE YOSE TUBONA BIKOMOKA MULI AFRIKA

 

Inyandiko za cyera n’ubushakashatsi bugezweho muli iki gihe (Recherche scientifique) byose bigaragaza ko inkomoko y’abantu bose batuye isi ali Afrika, cyane cyane Afrika y’Iburasirazuba (East Africa). Havugwa cyane ibihugu bya Ethiopia, Kenya na Tanzania kuko aliho habonetse ibimenyetso simusiga by’inkomoko y’inyoko Muntu. Ni ku mugabane w’Afrika haboneka ibimenyetso by’ibikorwa bya kijyambere biranga abakurambere bacu (écriture, calcul, temples, tombeaux, pyramides, Bâton ou Os d’ISHANGO etc.) Ibyo rero birasobanura ko atali Abanyafrika bakomoka ku moko yo hanze, ahubwo ko ali abandi baturage b’isi bakomoka ku Banyafrika. Abategetsi rero bamwe b’i Burayi bihandagaza bakavuga ko Abanyafrika nta ruhare na rumwe bigeze bagira mu majyambere y’isi bagaragaza ubwirasi bukubiyemo n’ubujiji bwinshi.
Ikindi n’uko hadutse umudeli ku banyafrika bamwe wo kwiyitirira inkomoko y’Abayahudi. Biragaragara ko ibyo nta shingiro bifite ahubwo ni amafuti kuko abanyafrika bose bafite abakurambere bamwe alibo Koush na Havila. Havila niwe wabyaye abo bita aba Nilotiques, aba Bantous n’aba Soudanais. Niwe wabyaye kandi n’Abalibiya (berbères), aba Touaregs naba Peuls. Ibyo tubisanga mu nyandiko nyinshi halimo Igitabo cy’Abakurambe (Livre des Patriarches), Inyandiko z’umunyamateka wa kera cyane w’umuyahudi Flavius Josèphe, Encyclopedia Judaïca, n’Igitabo cy’Itangiriro (Livre de la Genèse).

Martin Ukobizaba wanditse igitabo cyitwa "Opéaration Havila"

Martin Ukobizaba wanditse igitabo cyitwa « Opéaration Havila »

Kwiyitirira inkomoko y’abazungu rero birababaje kuko abazungu bo batavangura hagati y’abirabura. Baravuga bati : « Noir c’est noir, il n’ y a plus d’espoir! » Birasobanura ko umunyafrika uhingukiye mu kirwa cya LAMPEDUSA mu Butaliyani, cyangwa se uguye mu nyanja ya Méditerrannée, cyangwa se yaka ubuhungiro muli Amerika, Israheli Australiya, cg se i Burayi bose ni cya kimwe. Abakinnyi b’umupira bavugilizwa induru nk’izinguge ku bibuga by’i Burayi cyangwa se abana baraswa n’abapolisi muli Amerika ntawigera yibaza niba ali éthiopiens, nilotiques, bantous cyangwa se soudanais. Abanyafrika nibo bonyine bicamo ibice bishyira mu myanya itali iyabo!


Ese Abatutsi bafitanye isano n’Abayahudi. Ikiganiro na Martin Ukobizaba (Audio).

 


Umushakashatsi wo muli Kaminuza yitwa « School of Oriental Studies » w’umuyahudikazi witwa Edith BRUDER uherutse gusohora igitabo cyitwa « Black Jews » agaragaza ku buryo budasubirwaho ko Abanyafrika bose biyitirira inkomoko y’ ubuyahudi (Lembas, Jews of Rusape, Baluba, Bayuda, Yacouba, Hima-Tutsi) bibeshya cyane. Nyuma y’ubushakashatsi bwarengeje imyaka itatu yageze ku myanzuro ikulikira k’ubihakana ubwoko bw’ubunyafrika:
1°Kwiyanga (rejet de sa propre identité): ibyo bituruka kw’ihahamuka rya bamwe ryatewe n’ibinyejana bitanu bw’ubucakara n’ubukolonize byagiliwe abaturage b’Afrika. Kwiyitirira inkomoko yo hanze y’Afrika cyane cyane inkomoko yo mu kizungu bikaba ali uburyo bwo kwiyibagiza ayo mateka y’urukozasoni.
2° Kwigana abandi (mimétisme): baba bashaka kwigana abirabura bo muli Amerika biyise « Black Muslims », bahinduye idini banga gukomeza gusengera mu madini ya ba shebuja babagize abacakara. Hali n’abandi birabura bakulikiye idini y’Abayahudi kubera izo mpamvu.
3° Inyigisho z’Abamisiyoneri b’ Abaporoso bibanda cyane ku nyandiko z’Ikiragano cya Kera muli Biblia. Muli izo nyigisho usanga imico, imiziro n’imiziririzo by’ Abayisiraheli ba cyera bisa cyane n’ ibyabanyafrika, bigatuma bakeka ko bakomoka ku Bayahudi.
4° Gushakisha imfashanyo ya Leta ya Israheli cyangwa se y’imiryango y’Abayahudi bo muli Amerika biyemeje gufasha bene abo banyafrika; aha twavuga cyane cyane umuryango witwa « KULANU ».

 

Ahubwo Ikindi kigaragara n’uko umugabane w’Afrika wagize mu mateka y’isi uruhare rukomeye mu kwakira no gucumbikira Abana ba Israheli mu bihe by’amakuba nko mu nzara cg se mu ntambara. Aha twatanga ingero zikulikira: Yozefu yagulishijwe n’abavandimwe be ahungira mu Misiri aho yaje gukilira cyane, Abrahamu n’umugore we Sara bahungiye inzara kwa Farawo mu Misiri, Musa yabaye igikomangoma mu Misiri, Yezu n’ababyeyi be bahungiye mu Misiri umwami Herodi washakaga kwivugano urwo ruhinja etc.
Abanyafrika rero bakwiye guhagarika gushakira amakiriro ahandi kandi bicaye ku bukungu butagira ingano!

 

III. GUSHAKA KWIGARURIRA AKARERE KA HAVILA S’IBYUBU !

 

Nyuma yo kurwanira akarere gaturukamo amasoko y’uruzi rwa Nil, Abakoloni basanze Havila ali akarere keza cyane gafite ubutaka bwera, amazi ahagije, igihe cyiza, imisozi miremire idatuma indwara z’ibyorezo nka malaria ziharangwa,ubukungu kamere burenze urugero n’ibindi.. Abadage bo bashakaga kwimura abaturage bo muli ako gace bakajya kubatuza mu butayu byo muli Tanganyika ahitwa Tabora, noneho bakazana abaturage bo mu Budage bakaba alibo baza gutura mu karere k’ibiyaga bigali bikamera nkuko byagenze muli Afrika y’epfo. Iyo migambi mibisha yahagaritswe n’Intambara ya mbere y’Isi. Abanyarwanda n’Abarundi koko bararusimbutse !
Indepandansi z’ibihugu by’Afrika zimaze kuboneka mu myaka ya 60, ba gashakabuhake ntibahaye agahenge akarere ka Afrika y’Ibiyaga Bigali. Bakoze ibishoboka byose ngo basenye igihugu cya Kongo yahoze ali iy’Ababiligi cyaranzwemo ubukungu ndengakamere. Twakwibutsa ko bashyigikiye intara zikize cyane ku mutungo kamere nka Katanga, Kasaï na Kivu kugirango zigomeke ku butegetsi bw’i Kinshasa hanyuma zigire ubyigenge. Iby’amahirwe uwo mugambi ntibawugezeho!
Ku byerekeye u Rwanda, Abanyamerika basabye Leta ya Kayibanda muli 1964 uburenganzira bwo kwubaka mu Bugesera Ikigo cya gisilikare (base militaire) bigengaho hamwe n’ikibuga cy’indege aliko ntibabyemererwa. Barongeye babisaba Président Habyarimana nawe arabibangira kuko byumvikanaga ko bashaka gukoresha igihugu cyacu mu kuneka cyangwa se mu gushoza imvururu mu bihugu by’abaturanyi cyane cyane igihugu cya Kongo.

 

Hagati aho Abadage (RFA) nabo basabye kugira icyicaro mu karere bakoresheje ikibanza bahawe i Kinyiya hafi y’umurwa mukuru wa Kigali aho bubatse iminara ya Radio Internationale Deutsche Welle. Ntibahagarariye aho kuko bumvikanye na Président Mobutu Sese Seko wa Zaïre akabagurisha muli 1975 intara ya 100.000 km2 muli Province ya Manyema, aho bashakaga kubakira za Fusées na Satellites zo kwohereza mu kirere, bityo bagashobora kugenzura ibibera muli ako karere n’ahandi mw’isi. Iyo migambi ntiyashimishije Abarusiya basabye ko ibyo bikorwa bihagarikwa bwangu. Abadage banze, URSS yashyigikiye ku nshuro ebyiri intambara y’abiswe « Gendarmes Katangais, Mobutu akizwa n’ingabo zoherejwe na Valéry Giscard d’Estaing, wayoboraga igihugu cy’ u Bufransa. Mobutu yabonye bikomeye asezerera Abadage bava batyo mu karere. Batashye muli Mata 1979 bamaze kugerageza kwohereza mu kirere « Fusées » eshatu.
Muli 1985 Ababiligi nabo bashatse kugaruka mu karere bitwikirije igisa na « Common Wealth » mbiligi ikomatanyije ibihugu byali bigize umuryango wa CEPGL. Kubera kutumvikana na Président Mobutu, basabye Président Juvénal Habyarimana gucengeza icyo gitekerezo bagenzi be aliko ntiyabyemera kuko yumvaga umuyobozi wa Zaïre aliwe wali mukuru kandi n’igihugu cye alicyo kirusha ibindi ububasha n’abaturage benshi, akumva rero aliwe wali ukwiriye gushingwa uwo mushinga. Ibyo ntibyashimishije Ababiligi cyane cyane ko babonaga Habyarimana yarakundwakaje bikomeye Abafransa. Yali yalinjiye mu muryango wa Francophonie, yakira inama yawo i Kigali muli 1979, yemera no kuyobora umuryango wa OCAM kugeza igihe usenyukiye muli 1985.

 

IV. UMUGAMBI WO GUSENYA IBIHUGU BIKOMEYE BYA HAVILA URAKOMEJE

 

Intambara yo mu Rwanda yo muli 1990 niyo yatanze inzira yo kujya muli Congo harangwa umutungo kamere utangaje. Mu bihaboneka twavuga amabuye y’agaciro akoreshwa mu nganda zigezweho z’ama kompanyi aturuka mu bihugu bikomeye by’isi yose. Ngizo za coltan nickel, petroli, zahabu, cuivre, étain, diamant, uranium, tungstène, gaz méthane, terres rares, n’ibindi, n’ibindii… Mu ntambara zakulikiye iyo mu Rwanda zikabera ku butaka bwa Congo guhera muli 1996 kugeza n’ubu, hatikiriye imbaga y’impunzi z’abanyarwanda, abenshi bo mu bwoko bw’abahutu, zirenze ibihumbi 400. Bakulikiwe n’abanyentara barenze miliyoni icumi, ibyo byose byabaye ku manywa y’ihangu imbere y’ matelevision n’ amaradio y’isi yose aliko ibyo binyamakuru kimwe n’ imiryango mpuzamahanga n’ubutegetsi bw’ibihugu by’ihangange kwisi bikora nkaho ntacyabaye,barabyihorera nkuko baretse iby’i Kibebo bigahita nta nkomyi ! Ibyo birasobanura ko umubare w’abanyafrika bapfa ntacyo uvuze, bashobora gushira bose kandi ntibibuze isi gukomeza kubaho ! Nuko byagendekeye abaturage b’abavantara bo muli Amerika bitwaga « Amérindiens ». Barapfuye barashira, basimburwa n’Abanyaburayi baratura baratunganirwa !
Icyakijije abanyafrika kugeza ubu nuko bari bazwiho kugira ingufu zakoreshwaga mu milimo y’ubucakara. None ingufu z’amaboko zasimbuwe niz’ imashini. Abanyafrika rero umenya akabo kagiye gushoboka!

 

Ikigomba kwitabwaho mu maguru mashya n’ukumenya impanvu abanyafrika bagizwe abacakara mw’isi yose bakanakolonizwa. Impamvu yatumye abanyafrika basuzugurwa bene ako kageni bakagirwa ingaruzwamiheto nuko nta ngufu za gisilikare bigeze bagira, barwanishaga imiheto n’amacumu abandi barageze ku mbunda, imizinga, ibifaru n’ibyogajuru ! N’ubu kandi niko bimeze, uwashaka wese yaza akigarurira Afrika yose!!! Igihe Abanyafrika bali barangaye, andi moko nk’Abashinwa, Abahindi, Abapakistani bakoze ibishoboka byose kugirango bazashobore kwirwanaho; nuko biyubakira intwaro za kirimbuzi (bombe atomique) zituma nta gihugu na kimwe kwisi cyabatinyuka. Abandi nka Korea ya ruguru na Iran bagerageje kubigeraho aliko mwabonye ukuntu ba Gashakabuhake babamereye nabi ngo ntibifuza ko izo ntwaro zagera mu maboko ya buri wese. Ibyo bizatuma igihugu nka Iran kidashobora kwirwanaho umunsi cyatewe n’abashaka kwigarurira petroli yacyo. Izo mpuhwe z’ibihugu bitegeka isi zagira ishingiro ali uko ibyo bihugu nabyo bitangiye gusenya intwaro za kirimbuzi zitagira umubare bitunze nta nkomyi !
Ku buryo rero budasobanutse na gato, abategetsi b’Afrika biyemeje kutagira bene izo ntwaro ku mugabane w’Afrika, ahubwo umutekano wabo bawushyira mu maboko y’ibihugu byabashyize mu bucakara n’ubukoloni! Bibagiwe umugani w’Abaromani babanyabwenge mu by’itambara bagiraga bati: « Niba ushaka amahoro,Tegura intambara! » Naho umunyarwanda w’incakura yarivugiye ati: « Ntawuraza icyuma gifite ubugi mu nyama ».

 

Kubera ubwo burangare bw’Abanyafrika, umugambi wo gusenya ibihugu bikomeye byo kuli uwo mugabane urakomeje. Nyuma ya Sudani y’Amajyepfo ikungahaye cyane kuli petroli ikaba yarabonye ubwigenge muli 2011 imaze kwomorwa ku gihugu cya Sudani, nta kabuza hazakulikiraho igihugu cya Congo nkuko byateganyijwe kuva kera. Kereka abaturage b’ako karere k’Ibiyaga Bigali nibumva urubategereje bagakanguka.
Mu migambi mishya, ba Gashakabuhake ntibagishaka kumena amaraso y’abana babo kuko izo ntambara z’urudaca zitakibonwa neza n’abaturage b’ibyo bihugu iyo ibibondo byabo bihasize amagara! Ahubwo bahitamo gushora umwiryane hagati y’abirabura maze bakamarana, Gashakabuhake yiyicariye nk’ureba cinéma, ategereje kuza gusahura imitungo kamere y’ibyo bihugu birimo gushahurana, ahubwo n’uducye abanyagihugu babonye bakatugura intwaro zicurirwa kwa Gashakabuhake!
Hagati aho ibinyamakuru by’i Burayi n’Amerika bikomeza gushuka urubyiruko rw’Afrika byerekana ibihugu by’amajya Ruguru y’isi nkaho ali Paradizo yo kwisi. Nta kindi cyifuzo rero urwo rubyiruko rugira usibye guhunga umugabane w’Afrika niyo byaba ali ukujya kuba abacakara i Burayi! Abo kandi bagerayo n’ababa bagize Imana kuko benshi bagwa mu nzira bazize ba « trafiquants » nko muli Libiya cyangwa se bagapfira mu butayu bwa Sahara. Abitwa ko bararokotse iyo nzira y’umusaraba nibo barohama mu nyanja ya Méditerranée!

 

Uko abanyamutungo b’i Burayi baza bagana Africa niko abana b’Africa bahunga bagana iya Ruguru ! Halimo urujijo! Inama rero nagira urubyiruko rwacu ni ukwicara rugakorera ibihugu byababyaye nkuko andi moko nk’Abashinwa n’Abahinde yabigenje. Nabo kandi bari bafite ibibazo byo gutegekwa n’abanyagitugu bashyigikiwe na ba Gashakabuhake, aliko barabanje bakora urugamba rwo kwibohora bashyiraho ubutegetsi bushyigikiwe n’abaturage kandi bubabereye.

 

Martin Ukobizaba